PSY 1102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4-13: Mania, Spanish Inquisition, Deinstitutionalisation

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22 Mar 2017
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Schizophrenia
somewhat replaces the label psychosis, almost synonymous
not to be confused with multiple personality disorder!
From the Greek words:
“skhizain” (slit)
“phren” (spirit)
the split is not in the personality but rather between thinking and feeling.
Characteristics of Schizophrenia:
Disruption in language
- “neologisms” (combining words) and “word salads” (combination of words into a
sentence that doesn’t actually make any sense)
Disruption in perception
- Hallucinations: false sensory experiences
- Auditory hallucinations are usually the most popular (i.e. hearing voices)
Disruption in affect (emotions)
Motor symptoms (i.e. jitters, fidgety)
Detachment from reality, they are in their own world
Rapid vs. Slow progression
- Usually appears in the late teens/early adulthood
- If rapid progression, treatment usually works well (drugs, therapy, etc.)
- When progression is slow, it is a bigger problem (prognosis is difficult)
Disorganized thinking
- Selective attention difficult (hard to get their attention)
- Delusions: false beliefs
Types of Delusions:
Delusion of influence
- Belief that your thoughts can be perceived and controlled by others (i.e. aliens or
some influence controlling or messing with their thoughts)
Delusions of persecution
- Belief that “they” are out to get you
- Sense of impending danger
Delusions of grandeur
- Belief that you are important with special powers
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of
persecution or grandiosity
Disorganized: disorganized speech or behaviour, or flat or inappropriate emotion
Catatonic: immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and
repetitiveness
Undifferentiated: many and varied types & symptoms
Residual: withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
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Onset and Development of Schizophrenia
Mostly strikes in young adulthood
Observed across the world (probability is 1 in 100)
Men and women are affected but men slightly more often
If slow onset prognostic is poor
If rapid onset, better response to treatment (might be because it is triggered by extreme
stress remove the stress, helps greatly)
Understanding Schizophrenia What causes it?
We don’t know for sure, but some theories include…
Brain anomalies:
- Dopamine overactivity
- Abnormal brain activity and anatomy (possible more fluids in the brain??)
- Maternal virus during mid-pregnancy
viral infection that impairs fetal brain development
Genetic factors
- Identical twin studies (if you have a fraternal twin that is schizophrenic, 12-20%
chance of becoming schizophrenic) (could just be the closeness that makes you adopt
behaviour, and not genetics??)
Psychological Factors
- Mother with severe and long-lasting schizophrenia (baby could have schizophrenia)
- Birth complications
- Separation from parents
- Short attention span and poor motor coordination at an early age
- Disruptive or withdrawn behaviour at an early age
- Emotional unpredictability at an early age
- Poor peer relations and solo play at an early age
As you can see… possible explanations are all over the place.
Tools to Understand the Brain:
EEG looking at brain waves
Scanners X-rays forming a 3D image
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images
- Very precise imaging, show SOFT TISSUES (x-rays only show hard bones, etc)
PET scan (position emission tomography)
- Monitoring radioactive glucose while the brain is performing activities
VIDEO: ‘Anderson Cooper tries a schizophrenia simulator’
Other Psychotic Disorders:
Schizophreniform Disorder
- Symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant amount of time (maybe a
month), but not for the full 6 months which is when it becomes full-blown
schizophrenia
Delusional Disorder
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