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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Review Class 5 .docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1102
Professor
Christine Mountney
Chapter
10

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CHAPTER 10 REVIEW: Intelligence
What Is Intelligence?
1: What argues for and against considering intelligence as one general mental ability?
- Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that has revealed some underlying commonalities
in different mental abilities. Spearman named this common factor the g factor. Thurstone
argued against defining intelligence so narrowly as just one score. He identified seven
different clusters of mental abilities. Yet there remained a tendency for high scorers in
one of his clusters to score high in other clusters as well. Our g scores seem most
predictive in novel situations and do not much correlate with skills in evolutionarily
familiar situations.
2: How do Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences differ?
- Gardner proposes eight independent intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical,
musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist.
Sternberg’s theory has proposed three intelligence domains: analytical (academic
problem-solving), creative, and practical. (For more on the single- intelligence/multiple
intelligences debate, see Table 10.2).
3: What is creativity, and what fosters it?
- Creativity is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. It correlates somewhat with
intelligence, but beyond a score of 120, that correlation dwindles. It also correlates with
expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation,
and the support offered by a creative environment.
4: What makes up emotional intelligence?
- Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Those with higher emotional intelligence achieve greater personal and professional
success. However, critics question whether we stretch the idea of intelligence too far
when we apply it to emotions.
5: To what extent is intelligence related to brain anatomy and neural processing speed?
- Recent studies indicate some correlation (about +.33) between brain size (adjusted for
body size) and intelligence score. Highly educated or intelligent people exhibit an above-
average volume of synapses and gray matter. People who score high on intelligence tests
tend also to have speedy brains that retrieve information and perceive stimuli quickly.
Assessing Intelligence
6: When and why were intelligence tests created?
- In France in 1904, Alfred Binet started the modern intelligence testing movement by
developing questions that helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school
system. Lewis Terman of Stanford University revised Binet’s work for use in the United
States. Terman believed his Stanford-Binet could help guide people toward appropriate
opportunities, but more than Binet, he believed intelligence is inherited. During the early
part of the twentieth century, intelligence tests were sometimes used to “document”
scientists’ assumptions about the innate inferiority of certain ethnic and immigrant
groups.
7: What’s the difference between aptitude and achievement tests, and how can we develop
and evaluate them?
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