sep. 30, 2013 CCT chapter 1 and half of chapter 2 Review
Why New Media?
● there is a temptation to simply list the latest developments in media and call these new.
● there is a problem to this approach, because types of media like film, radio and tv are
now considered old.
● in developed countries media technology is so common in our work and house that they
are ceasing to be new in any meaningful sense of the term. As a result any approach to
new media ignores the central question of why there is a need to look at new media in the
New Media has been defined as a combination of the 3 C’s:
1. computing and info tech
2. communication networks
3. content and digitized media, arising out of another process, convergance
● refers to the first instance to the interlinking of computing and IT, communication of the
Internet and the convergent of new products ,services, and activities that have emerged
in the digital media space.
● ex. tv shows have websites, apps on phones
● one might speak of convergence from 3 different perspectives (technology, services, and
industry) makes it confusing to writers and students.
● convergence is generating a global flat earth, where activities conducted through digital
media can occur in any part of the world
● the second element of convergence is the morphing as they become multi purpose
conduits for a range of activities involving digital media.
● ex. computers become telephones via skype, iphone is now a platform for playing games
Characteristics of Digital Media:
1. Manipulable: changeable and adaptable
2. networkable: can be shared and exchanged between multiple people at the same time and
across enormous distances.
3. dense: lots of info can be stored in a small space (USB STICK)
4. compressible: the amount of capacity that digital info takes up on any network can be reduced
dramatically through compression
5. impartial: digital info carried across networks is indifferent to how it is represented
Lievrouw and Livingstone note that any approach to think about new media needs to take
account of 3 elements:
1. the artifacts that enable and extend our ability to communicate
2. the communication activities and practices we engage in to develop and use these devices 3. the social arrangements and organizations that form around these devices and practices.
● what differentiates new media and old media is that new media are interactive in a way
that previous media were not usually thought to be.
● IM services, online games, and websites all extend our abilities, change our practices,
and transform social arrangements through different levels of interactivity
● new media takes the power of the mass media to aggregate large groups and takes the
ability of interactive media to involve participants and blends them together
Internet History refers both to:
1. technical infrastructure of computers and other digital devices permanently connected through
high speed telecommunications networks
2. the forms of content, communication and info sharing that occur through these networks.
● internet was created when the American scientific community wanted to perfect
mechanisms of communicating with one another by the demands of the military.
● the ARPA developed packet switching in the 1960’s which was that long messages
would be broken down into smaller packets and messages could be rerouted if there was
a blockage at one message route or point of connection between two computers.
● another landmark was the development of a common set of networking protocols which
enabled resarchers in the various local area networks to communicate with one another
through LANS within WAN.
● The significance of developing the web became even more apparent in 1992 when Marc
Andreessen developed Mosaic as the first popular web browser. He was the founder of
Netscape which was the first commercial web browser (1994).
Important features of the web were important:
1. it allowed for display of pictures, music and audio as well as data and text.
2. it was based on hypertext principles.
3. the web was associated with the development of both the common HTTP, which provided a
platform independent means of interconnection between websites and HTML as a relatively
straightforward means of writing source code for the web. As a result, more people can become
producers and consumers of content on web
The People Behind the Internet and the Applications Side of Internet
Cataloguing and Searching:
● yahoo! was built by college students Jerry Yang and David Filo who were engineers at
Stanford Uni. as a site that would bring together all kinds of useful website links,
categorize them, and let the user either flip through them by heading or search within the entire set.
● search engines affect politics and privacy.
Digital Dividethe differential access to and use of the internet according to gender, income,
race and location.
● global divide or differential internet access between nations based on access to
networked ICT infrastructures, computers, info transmission capacity etc.
● social divide or the gaps within nations in terms of access to the Internet as a means of
Murdock and Golding argued that because the computing hardware, software, and skills
required change so quickly and opportunities to learn these skills are unequally distributed,
inequalities in the digital environment continue to reflect other sources of social inequality
Web 2.0 the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet
as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on the new platform.
**Caught on for 2 reasons:
1. the quality of participation increases as the number of participating users increases, and this
in turn attracts more new users to the sites.
2. Some of the fastest growing websites of the 2000s have been based on web 2.0 principles
Software programs and Internet Sites that conform to Web 2.0 principles have core
principles, in that they are:
1. manytomany in their connectivity
2. decentralized in terms of control
3. userfocused and easy for new users to use
4. open in terms of their technology standards and their API
5. relatively simple and lightweight in their design, their administrative requirements, and their
startup and ongoing development costs
6. expected to evolve and change over time, as users make new modifications to the sites.
Web 2.0 is different from web 1.0 in the fact that it s a move from personal websites to blogs
and blog site aggregation; from publishing to participation; from web content as the outcome of a
large upfront investment to an ongoing and interactive process; and from content management
systems to links based on tagging or what is known as folksonomy.
A significant factor in the promotion of web 2.0 has been the dot.com crash of 2000 where lots
of small investors lost