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University of Toronto Mississauga

GGR208 ReadingsPages 17 Most population growth occurring in developing worlds Population processes fertility mortality and population movement Societies around the world are characterized by or shaped by their population processes and characteristics You can use these to describe population processes data and composition Characteristicsmortality and fertility processes infant mortality rate IMRMeasures the number of deaths to infants less than one year of age per one thousand births Life expectancy measures the number of years an individual is expected to live could be due to poor health care failure of government to prove basic necessities Population movement local residential changes as housing needs change domestic and international migration Many countries restrict international entry to those who qualify under specific programs Typically selecting the young and those with skills Most promote the entry of individuals who are able to invest in the host country or embody the education or skills that are demanded by developed countries Refugees persons who are outside their country of nationality and are unable to return owing to fear of persecution for reason of race religion nationality or association in a social or political groupThe importance of considering fertility mortality and population movement is realizing the multiple interconnections with population Population geography the study of the human population with respect to size composition and spatial distribution and changes in the population that occur over timePopulations are altered by three basic processesFertility birthsMortality deathsMigration movement of people across space Population geographers seek to understand the society around them the structures of a population and how it changes through births deaths and migrations Population research draws on many disciplines and research traditions Geographers contribute regularly to population studies and their methods and findings and crossfertilize other disciplinary perspectives Demography is the statistical analysis of population with its roots in analysis of mortality and fertility Population studies is used to describe other approaches to looking at population issues Population geography is the geographical study of population with an emphasis on location and spatial processes relatively new study Population mobility is inherently spatial connecting places both local and international Analyze economic social and political effects associated with international movements Populations are governed by various natural laws we are all born and must die Government is interested in the structures of populations too like age From this the governments can direct program delivery to ensure the needs of their constituents are metUnderstanding the composition of populations and its distribution is important and needed for planning purposes as well as the private and public sectors Study of populations is interdisciplinary in scope Economic systems will determine fertility behavior and mortality of populations and environmental crises related to pollution etc Population geography first rose to prominence with Glenn T Trewartha in 1953 He envisioned population geography as a separate subdivisionIt initially dealt with the geographic character of places content to describe the location of population and its characteristics Wilbur Zelinskys book helped further cement the creation and reflected population geographys close ties to formal demography Logical positivism combining empirical study with mathematics and scientific inquiry Also used qualitative and quantitative data with the help of computers Qualitative approaches offer detailed insights and geographic information systems GIS and spatial analytical techniquesEconomic and cultural geography provide insights into fertility choices which may reflect the economic needs of the family including tradeoff between children as labor or pension plans 6 Research themes in population geography Internal migration and residential mobilityInternational migration and transnationalism Immigrant assimilation and adjustment and the emergence of ethnic enclavesRegional demographic variationSocial theory and population processesPublic policy Research themes include the relationship between migration and economic cycles and restructuring the effects of demographic cycles population aging and baby boom cohort on migration life course perspectives on population mobility and ethnographic approaches to migrationChapter 1 Much of humanitys history the world population was small and the population growth was slow Aided by food security the shift from huntergatherer societies to agriculturalbased societies allowed the population to grow High death rates from famine war and epidemics By 1600 the worlds population was 500 million not much larger than the population of US Middle 1600s the population started to grow with improvements in commerce food production and security and nutrition Reached 1 billion by 1800 Population of developing countries grew slow but held the bulk of the worlds population Advances in medicine and sanitation increased survival and life expectancies Population continues to grow and is projected to reach 7 billion soon Demographers refer to the amount of time it would take a population to double in size assuming the growth rate remained constant as doubling time
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