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HIS101H5 (20)
Chapter 15

HIS Chapter 15.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Mairi Cowan

Chapter 15: • Three Islamic Empire: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal THE CONEQUESTS OF TIMUR LENK: • Muslim Turk in Central Asia • Descent of Genghis Khan • Limped – Timur the lame Timur’s Strengths and Good Fortune: • Was cavalry captain • Owed his military – o Weather made land arid so pastureland o Established his capital in Central Asia, Samarkand • Descended upon Persia, across Iran and subdued Baghbad • Took 13 years to conquer large part of Asia Attack on the Ottomans: • Ottoman successor Selijuks in the Balkans • Bayezid (Sultan) wanted to join Europe with Asia by taking Constantinople and Western Anatolia • He invaded Timur’s land – Timur captured BaYezid and made his wife strip naked • Bayezid died • Constantinople saved from Ottoman assault – they feared Timur turn to Europe • He died of alcohol poisoning Timur as Warrior and Administrator: • Illiterate, seize opportunity • Conquer and give it to grandson to rule then never consolidate • Brutual to anyone disloyal to Islam THE COSMOPOLITAN OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Ottoman and Byzantines: • Turkic speaking nomadic group led by Osman – fleeing westward of Mongols • These got converted to Sunniby Selijuk • Ottoman opposed Byzanyinr Empire • When Selijuk collapsed and the Mongols withdrew the Ottomans took oer chamoions of Muslims against Byzantine • Byzantine got recaptured nu Western Crusaders (Balkan) • Pax Ottomanica stabilizes SW Asia and the Balkan o Foundation of reiligous and ethnically pluralistic society • Timur’s attack on the Ottomans eases the pressure on Byzantium • Murad – promote Islam but got slain by Serb • After Timur’s death Ottoman regrouped • two successive sultan tired to capture Constantinople and failed • eventually Ottoman absorbed Byzantium Mehmed the Conqueror: • final conqueror of Byzantium was Sultan Mehmed • determine to take Constantinople – he succeeded • fell of Constantinople – threw Western Christendom into despair • Mehmed II intends to restore the Roman Empire • He controlled over Anatolia The Ottoman State and Society: • Ottoman government was based on the Sultan’s exclusive right to rule • Four pillars of empire – o Grand vezir: chief minister to the sultan o Judiciary o Treasury o Administratiors who drew up the sultan’s edict • Mehemd – rule according to Shariah and seek fatwa • Kanun – shape responds that Shariah had overseen • Greek – Balkan neighbor – enemy – not fight • Meritocracy – land ownership • Janissaries help Ottoman armies connect SW Asia
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