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Chapter 1

PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Environmental Psychology, Observational Learning, Edward B. Titchener


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
1

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Psychology
Sep 7, 2015
Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
Researchers are motivated by high profile events and cases in order to reduce its
reoccurrence
Analyzes and prevents future reoccurrence of similar events
Psychology is a way of thinking
Psychology as a science asks researchers precise questions about issues to test ideas
(through observation)
Builds knowledge that is accurate and reliable
After World War 2, clinical psychology became a profession and a science, which spread to
other areas in psychology
Positive psychology movement became the driving force in psychology during the 21st
century
A science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes, while being
a profession that applies knowledge to practical problems
Philosophy, Physiology and Psychology
Psychology: psyche- soul (also referred to the soul, spirit or mind) + logos- study of a subject
Psychology is the study of the mind
Emerged as a scientific discipline a century ago
Separation of the mind and body
Knowledge is inborn (nativism, existent since birth) or
Gained through experience (empiricism- sense experience)
Aristotle’s theory of memory is the foundation for multiple theories on memory today
Similarity, contrast and contiguity (proximity of stimuli and response)
René Descartes (1496-1650) argued that there is a dualism of mind and body, both were
separate and different
Mind (soul) is immaterial
Functions and process of memories, perceptions and emotions were properties of the
body
Important legacy to psychology
Humans are understood as a part of nature
A New Science is Born: Hall and Wundt
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Psychology
Sep 7, 2015
Psychology became the study of conscious experience
G. Stanley Hall contributed immensely to the growth of psychology in the US
Driving force for the American Psychological Association (APA) and was APA president
largest organization devoted to the development of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (1870’s) combines the disciplines of philosophy and physiology
Psychology born in Germany, blossomed to America
Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Structuralists and functionalists fought for high stakes for the definition and direction for the
definition of psychology
Functionalism helped develop modern psychology: behaviourism and applied psychology
Behaviourism
Behaviourism is based on how scientific psychology should only study observed behaviour
John B. Watson redefined scientific psychology by proposing to abandon consciousness and
only observe behaviour
Structuralism
Functionalism
Structuralism is based on the analysis of
consciousness and investigate how the elements
are related
Functionalism is the investigation of the function
and purpose of consciousness
Structuralists studied the fundamental
components; sensations, feelings and images
Sensation and perception in vision, hearing and
touch
William James wrote Principles of Psychology
which heavily influenced psychologists. Argues
that consciousness consists of a continuous flow
of thoughts. The flow of thoughts is referred to as
stream of consciousness.
Dependent on introspection: the self-observations
of one’s own conscious experiences
Training to make the subject more objective
Exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions and
visual stimuli under controlled environments
Embedded in cultural and intellectual influences
(note: natural selection)
Tend to gravitate laboratory work.
Took interest into people adapting their behaviour
to their surroundings, lead to introducing new
subjects to psychology.
Edward Titchener was an Englishman who led
structuralism
John Dewey investigated mental testing, patterns
of development in children and effectiveness of
educational practices. Attracted women into
psychology.
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Psychology
Sep 7, 2015
Scientific claims can always be verified or disproved, can be objective
Mental processes were not enough to be claims for scientific study as they are all
subjective
Redefined psychology as the science of behaviour
Behaviour: response or activity by an organism
Ability to study anything that people do or say, but not the thoughts or feelings that may
accompany the observed behaviours
Nature vs. nurture
Genetic inheritance or environment and experience
Watson claims that behaviours are made, not born with, suppressing the importance of
heredity
Overt behaviours (responses) to events in the environment (stimuli) - stimulus is a
detectable input from the environment
Stimuli ranges from light and sound waves, or words, advertisements on TV or
sarcastic remarks by a friend
Referred to stimulus-response (S-R) psychology
Rise in animal research in psychology as they were better subjects
Experimental research is more productive if experimenters can control their subjects
Unconscious into the Picture
Sigmund Frued: Austrian physician
Freud’s approach to psychology is for the purpose to treat mental disorders
Irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties using psychoanalysis
Gathered material through examining his own anxieties, conflicts and desires
Unconscious: thoughts, memories, desires that are under the surface of conscious
awareness, greatly influences behaviour
Dreams expressed feelings the subjects were unaware of
Psychoanalytic theory: explain personality, motivation and mental disorders, mainly
focusing on the unconscious
People are not the master of their own minds
Psychoanalytic theory conflicted with psychology during the time
Psychologists are focusing on observational behaviour than the study of the conscious
Psychoanalytic theory started influencing medicine, arts and literature
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