Newborn child appears red, wrinkled and blotchy due to them floating around in amniotic sac for. First behaviors are reflexes (involuntary responses to external stimuli) Most reflexes disappear as a child grows, but they are present to ensure newborn survival: eye blink: prevent strong light from damaging eyes, rooting and sucking reflex: locate and obtain food. Absence of or weak reflexes neurological problems. Infant states are the regular states of arousal versus rates of quiet activity (sleep) We do not randomly act or behave, there are internal forces that regulate behavior. Infants sleep by taking short naps during day and night. Intervals of sleep decrease by age; more sleep during night and less during day. Patterns of sleep: kenyan babies sleep with mothers and take regular day naps slowly evolves to night naps, american babies sleep more at night and take fewer day naps.