Case studies female drinks a lot, but not in the morning; doesn"t think she has a drinking prob b/c she doesn"t drink in the morn. ; she also smokes marijuana and can"t stop. Family aggregation: whether a disorder runs in families. Male hears voices with malicious intent; was normal before experiencing schizophrenia. Magnets marketed to ppl who have chronic hand/wrist pain know as repetitive-stress injury. Double blind experiment 3 groups 1) wore the bracelet with magnet 2) wore an identical bracelet w/o the magnet (placebo) 3) no treatment. Results showed that ppl typed more words with the magnet due to placebo effect. Box 1. 2 the world around us the elements of abnormality. Elements of abnormality the more of these one has, the more likely he/she has some form of mental disorder. Neither a sufficient condition (all that is needed) nor even a necessary condition (that all cases of abnormality must show) for us to consider something as abnormal.