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PSY100Y5 (809)
Chapter 7

Textbook Chapter 7 Notes

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Ayesha Khan

Notes From Reading C HAPTER 7:H UMAN M EMORY (PGS . 300-347)  Three Key Processes involved in Memory o Encoding – involves forming a memory code o Storage – maintaining encoded information in memory over time o Retrieval – recovering information from memory stores Encoding: Getting Information into Memory The Role of Attention  Attention – involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning.  Attention, which entails a selective focus on certain input, enhances encoding Level of Processing  Levels-of-Processing Theory – proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer- lasting memory codes  Structural Encoding – relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus, like if the word was capitalized  Phonemic Encoding – emphasizes what a word sounds like that involves naming or saying the words  Semantic Encoding – emphasizes the meaning of verbal input that involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represents Enriching Encoding – can enhance encoding and retention  Elaboration – is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding o You read that phobias are caused by classical conditioning, you relate it to your own fear of spiders  Visual Imagery – the creation of visual images to represent the word being remembered (can enrich encoding) o Dual-Coding Theory – memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall  Self-Referent Encoding – deciding how/whether material is personally meaningfu Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory  Information-processing theories purpose that people have three memory stores: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory  Atkinson and Shiffrin posited that incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers before being placed into long-term memory Sensory Memory  Sensory Memory – (less than 1 sec) and preserves information in its original form (visionary or auditory)  Memory traces in the sensory store appear to decay in about one-quarter of a second Short-Term Memory  Short-Term Memory (STM) – can maintain about 7 chunks of unrehearsed information for up to 20 seconds o This is the working memory  Rehearsal – Repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information (can maintain information in your short-term store)  Maintenance Processing – maintaining information in consciousness  Elaborate Processing – increasing the probability that you will retain the information in the future, like focusing on the meaning Notes From Reading C HAPTER 7:H UMAN MEMORY (PGS. 300-347)  Durability of Storage – without rehearsal, memory can hold info up to 20 seconds  Capacity of Storage – Miller states that limited capacity of STM constrains ability to perform tasks that mentally require huge pieces of information o Chunk – a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit  Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory” o Working Memory – limited storage system that temporarily maintains/ stores info by providing an interface between perception, memory& action o Working Memory Capacity (WMC) – refers to one’s ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention  Baddeley’s model of working memory consists of four componenets: o Phonological Loop – using recitation to temp. remember a phone number o Visuospatial Sketchpad – temp. hold and manipulate visual images o Central Executive System – controls and divides attention when needed o Episodic Buffer – integrate info that serves as interference b/w working memory and long-term memory Long-Term Memory  Long-term Memory – is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time  Flashbulb Memories – unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events  Some theorists view short-term memory as a tiny, constantly changing portion of LTM in a state of heightened activation How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?  Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies o Clustering – the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups o Conceptual Hierarchy – a multilevel classification system based on common properties among times  Schemas o Schemas – is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event  Semantic Networks o Semantic Network – consists of concepts joined by pathways linking related concepts  Connectionist Networks o Connectionists/ Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) – assumes that memories consists of patterns of activation in connectionists networks that resemble neural networks Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory  Unavailable – information is no longer present in your memory system  Inaccessible – information is present in the system but not accessible to you atm Using Cues to Aid Retrieval  Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon – the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach Reinstating the Context of an Event  Encoding Specific Principle – memory for information would be better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar  Reinstating the context of an event can often enhance retrieval efforts Notes From Reading C HAPTER 7:H UMAN M EMORY (PGS . 300-347)  Eich states that state-dependent memory effects are more readily observed for free-recall conditions than for recognition Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect  Memories are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted  Cultures, recent experiences, personality differences can affect which schemas are used in reconstructing events  Misinformation Effect – occurs when recall of an event is changed by misleading post event information  Even the simple act of retelling a story can introduce inaccuracies into memory Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring  Reality Monitoring – process of deciding whether memories are based on one’s perceptions of actual events or one’s thoughts and imaginations  Source Monitoring – makes attributions about the origins of memories  Source Monitoring Error – occurs when a memory derived from one source is attributed to another source  Destination Memory – involves recalling to whom one has told what Forgetting: When Memory Lapses  Pe
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