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Chapter 1

Chapter one: Lecture 1-4-Personality Psychology

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ulrich Schimmack

PSY230- personality psychology 1 Lectures 1-4 (chp 1) Introductory pages what is personality psych? - individual differences vs everybody same compare personalities of diff ppl vs. cognitive (basic cognitive process: memory, attention, etc) and dev psych (changes in psycho processes over life span) - healthy and normal differences vs. abnormal psych (assumes ppl diff, but wants to help em) - personality and situation affect behaviour vs. social psych (social influences on psych process) approaches o focus on individual: idiographic - one indiv at a time - understand indivs actions from indivs characteristics - eg. Biography of famous ppl - eg. Self-exploration - ADVANTAGES: - More complete understanding of a SINGLE indiv - Great for important ppl BUT NOT everyday ppl - DISADVANTAGES: - Subjective (influenced by biographer) - Difficult to test scientifically - Cannot be generalized to other indiv o focus on variable: nomothetic - relation bw individuals differences in one variable and another variable - eg. Self-esteem correlates w life satisfaction (r=0.60) - ADVANTAGES: - Objective (replication) - Theories can be tested scientifically - More complete understanding of MANY people - Useful for everyday ppl - DISADVANTAGES: - Boring : no juicy stories of personal life events - Difficult: need to understand correlations GOALS 1. classification - how do ppl differ from each other - how these differences related to each other 2. causes - why ppl differ from each other 3. consequences - what are the effect of indiv differences Chapter One - There is no zero in psychology. We cannot make an exact ratio to compare two people. ex: we cannot say this person is 50% more rebellious than another. www.notesolution.comPSY230- personality psychology 2 Lectures 1-4 (chp 1) - There is no true zero level. This means that lets say a person takes an intelligence test and gets zero, we cannot say that the person has zero intelligence because if the test was easier they would have gotten a higher score. Therefore there are no zero levels in psychology. - Absolute amount of a variable for example how intelligent someone is. We cannot measure the absolute amount of a variable in a person. - In psychology we can still measure given traits in a person. One way of doing this is by rank. We can rank people from most rebellious to least rebellious and put st nd rd them in 1 , 2 , 3 place. - The issue is that the person in first place may only be slightly more rebellious than the person in 2 place, and the 2 place may be much more rebellious than 3 place therefore it is hard to determine an average. The differences between each place or score must be MEANINGFUL. Therefore each difference must be the same (equal intervals) Equal diff intervals between scores represent roughly equal diff in the level of the trait Eg) diff bw IQ 120 and 130 has same meaningful diff as diff bw 140 and 150. Standard scores enables to make meaningful comparisons across diff kinds of measurement scales Eg) how far below or above avrg on for one trait vs other - The measurements are not taken in a specific unit. We must come up with a way to compare two different variables. For example, if your IQ is 90 and the average is 100, and your average sociability score is 60 and the average is 50, we must be able to understand that although 60 is lower than 90, the sociability score is HIGHER than the IQ. These two scores are on different scales. - Basically in order to compare two scores, you have to change both scores into STANDARD SCORES so that you can compare properly. - Take the persons score and subtract the AVERAGE SCORE from it. If the outcome is a positive number, they are above average, if it is a negative number, they are below average. But must also take variablitiy into consideration. So devide diff from persons score to avg score by st dev. - After making the comparison we want to see how FAR a person is from the mean. Are they WAY above or below average, or not too far off? - Take the sum from the first step and divide it by the standard deviation. - STANDARD DEVIATION PAGE 4 - The standard score is a universal value. Standard score mean = 0, st dev = 1 Correlation coef - Known by the symbol R - Values range from -1 to +1. -1
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