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PSY240 Concepts of Abnormality keyterms.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY240 –Chapter1 Keyterms Asylum A place for treatment of the mentally ill. Units for the mentally ill were established w/I the great Arab hospitals in Baghdad in AD 800 and asylums were created in other Arab cities some 500 yrs. before Europeans built their first asylums. Treatment in Arab asylums followed the tradition of care, support and compassion. Bedlam Any form of rowdy, chaotic behaviour. The noise and disruption among the residents of Bethlem Royal Hospital (as it is now known) prompted the use of the word (the local corruption of “Bethlem”). This asylum was established by Henry VIII in 1547 when he had the monastery of St. Mary of Bethlehem converted. Behaviourism A psychological approach to understanding abnormal behaviour devised by John B. Watson (1858 – 1935), which declared that psychology must be restricted to the study of observable features, that is, the behaviour of organisms. Watson considered abnormal functioning to be learning was derived from Ivan Pavlov’s (1849 – 1936) studies of classical conditioning Clinical Psychologists Persons who are initially trained in general psychology and then receive graduate training in the application of this knowledge to the understanding, diagnosis, and amelioration of disorders of thinking and behaviour. They have a thorough grounding in research methods, and some spend their careers doing research on abnormal functioning, although many also provide treatment. The treatment methods of clinical psychologists primarily involve psychological interventions of one kind or another. Culturally Relative The functions and acceptability of various behaviours vary by culture, rather than being universal truths; as such, an individual’s beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his/her own culture. Deinstitutionalization The removal of people w/ disabilities from institutions and the provision of community-based accommodation and services. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) The use of electricity to induce a seizure in mental patients by placing electrodes on the skull and administering a convulsive rather than a lethal shock intensity. Evidence-based practice (EBP) Health care based on established scientific findings rather than practitioners’ assumptions. General paresis of the insane (GPI) A disorder evidenced by mania, euphoria, and grandiosity, followed by progressive deterioration of brain functioning (called dementia) and paralysis. Now known to result from untreated infections by the syphilis spirochete. Humours Bodily fluids, disturbances of which, according to Hippocrates, resulted in psychological dysfunctioning. Lobotomies Psychosurgery consisting of surgical removal, or disconnection, of the frontal lobes of the brain, intended to relieve all manner of mental and emotional disorders. Mental health commission of Canada (MHCC) A non-profit organization created to focus national attention on mental health issues and to work to improve the health and social outcomes of people living with mental illness. Mental hygiene movement A movement started by Dorothea Dix (1802-1887), a Boston school teacher, characterized by a desire to protect and provide humane treatment for the mentally ill. Her campaign resul
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