Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY240H5 (135)
Chapter 1

PSY240 - Chapter 1 Notes

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Ayesha Khan

CHAPTER 1: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW Case studies - female drinks a lot, but not in the morning; doesn’t think she has a drinking prob b/c she doesn’t drink in the morn.; she also smokes marijuana and can’t stop - Family aggregation: whether a disorder runs in families - male hears voices with malicious intent; was normal before – experiencing schizophrenia - WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR? - Box 1.1 – Developments in Research – Do magnets help with repetitive-stress injury? - magnets marketed to ppl who have chronic hand/wrist pain – know as repetitive-stress injury - double blind experiment – 3 groups – 1) wore the bracelet with magnet 2) wore an identical bracelet w/o the magnet (placebo) 3) no treatment - results showed that ppl typed more words with the magnet due to placebo effect - Box 1.2 – The World Around Us – The Elements of Abnormality - Elements of Abnormality  the more of these one has, the more likely he/she has some form of mental disorder - 1. Suffering - psychological suffering - neither a sufficient condition (all that is needed) nor even a necessary condition (that all cases of abnormality must show) for us to consider something as abnormal - 2. Maladaptiveness - maladaptive behaviour - not all disorders involve it - ex. con artists don’t consider their behaviour maladaptive b/c it is how they make their living, but it is maladaptive for society so we consider them abnormal - 3. Deviancy - statistically rare and undesirable  considered abnormal - 4. Violation of the Standards of Society - whether it is abnormal depends on magnitude of the violation and how commonly it is violated by others - 5. Social Discomfort - when someone violates a social rule - 6. Irrationality and Unpredictability - imp whether person can control his or her behaviour  in general, what society considers abnormal changes over time – ex. homosexuality was thought to be a mental disorder before WHY DO WE NEED TO CLASSIFY MENTAL DISORDERS? - provides us with nomenclature: naming system - also allows us to structure info in a more helpful manner o allows one to study diff. disorders, learn more and determine how best to treat someone - Social and political implications o establishes range of probs that mental health profession can address o delineates which types of probs should get reimbursement - Box 1.3 – Extreme Generosity or Pathological Behaviour - a man gave away his fortunes, proceeded to donate his kidney and wanted to give his whole body away to help others - WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF CLASSIFICATION? - loss of info - Stigma: disgrace attached to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis - Case study - a man lived with bipolar disorder for many years, he was hospitalized for a suicide attempt; contacted mental health authorities about dealing with mental illness and was told that ppl like him don’t go back to work - this case study shows Stereotyping: automatic beliefs that ppl have about others based on knowing one thing about them - Labelling: a person’s self-concept may be directly affected by being given a diagnosis o may still remain the same after a full recovery - Table 1.1 - Symptom: single indicator of a prob; can involve affect, behaviour or cognition - Syndrome: group or cluster of symptoms that all occur together o ex. depression can be a symptom when about affect, but a syndrome when it has all the symptoms - THE DSM-IV DEF’N OF MENTAL DISORDER - America Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV-TR (text revision) - def’n by DSM does not refer to causes of mental disorder; attempts to be “atheoretical” - Limitations of the def’n - What is meant by “clinically significant” and how should this be measured? - how much distress or disability should be experienced by someone before she or she can be said to be suffering from a mental disorder - who determines what is “ulturally sanctioned”? - what constitutes a “behavioural, psychological or biological dysfunction”? - problematic behaviour cannot itself be the dysfunction because that would be like saying mental disorders are due to mental disorders (circular reasoning) - Wakefield’s def’n of mental disorder: - proposed that mental disorder is “harmful dysfunction” - harm is based on social values (ex. suffering, being unable to work, etc.) - dysfunction refers to underlying mechanism that fails to perform according to its (presumably evolutionary) design - limitation – evolutionary theory does not provide us with list of what is functional and what is not - HOW DOES CULTURE AFFECT WHAT IS CONSIDERED ABNORMAL? - cultural factors affect presentation of disorders found all over the globe osome cultures don’t have a word for mental disorder, but have words for the symptoms and syndromes related to them - culture can also shape clinical representation of disorders o ex. depression is china refers to the physical aspects and not the emotional - CULTURE-SPECIFIC DISORDERS - Kyofusho: prevalent in Japan; anxiety disorder; fear that one’s body, body parts of body functions may offend/embarrass others or make them feel uncomfortable – often afraid of blushing, fear upsetting others with facial expression, gaze or body odour - Ataque de nervios: found in some Latino-Caribbean and Latin Mediterraneans; symptoms (include crying, trembling, uncontrollable screaming, general feeling of being out of control; sometimes aggressive physically or verbally; may faint or experience something like seizure) triggered often by stressful event (ex. loss of loved one); once ataque is over, no memory of what happened - Abnormal behaviour: deviates from the norms of the society in which it is enacted o universally considered abnormal - ex. defecating, urinating in public - HOW COMMON ARE MENTAL DISORDERS? - imp to know because allows one to determine how funds should be allocated - ex. depression in women is 2:1 of men generally; not the case in Jews – both affected almost equally; Jewish males more likely to have depression than non Jewish males - Prevalence and Incidence - Point prevalence: estimated proportion of actual
More Less

Related notes for PSY240H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.