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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Sex and Gender: Vive La Difference?

6 Pages

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Stuart Kamenetsky

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NotesFromReadingCHAPTER10SEXANDGENDERVIVELADIFFRENCEPGS296328GETTING STARTED DEFINING SEX AND GENDERSex refers to a persons biological identity as male or femaleGender is used to refers to the persons socially constructed identity Gender Tying The process by which children acquire the values motives and behaviours considered appropriate for their gender in their particular cultureGenderBased Beliefs An idea that differentiates males and femalesGender Identity The perception of oneself as either male or female GenderRole Preferences A desire to possess certain gendertyped characteristicsGender Stability The fact that males remain male and females remain femaleGender Constancy The awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or activity do not alter gender Gender Stereotype Belief that members of a culture hold about acceptable and appropriate attitudes interests activities psychological traits social relationships occupations and physical appearance for males and females Gender Role Composite of the behaviours actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture the reflection of gender stereotype in everyday lifeGENDER STEREOTYPESChildren are aware of adult and child gender stereotypes from an early age oA study showed 2 year old looking longerindicating they were surprisedat pictures of a man doing stereotypical female things such as putting on makingChildrens knowledge of stereotypes increases rapidly between ages 3 and 5 and is well developed by the time they enter school Until they are 7 or 8 children are quite inflexible about gender stereotyping By age 8 or 9 they beginto be more flexible about whats acceptable for members of each sex to doCrosscultural studies show that these stereotypes are widespread not only in North America but also in a range of societies in South America Europe Africa and Asia Almost everyone views aggression as more characteristic of boys and men and interpersonal sensitivity as more characteristic of girls and womenGENDER DIFFERENCE IN BEHAVIOUR INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIESBehaviour Differences in Childhood On average girls are physically and neurologically more advanced at birth learn to walk earlier and reach puberty at younger ages than boysAs infants they prefer to look at faces rather than objects and by 4 months of age the average duration of mutual gazing between infant girls and women is four times longer than that between infant boys and womenGirls are better at recognizing and processing facial expressions and tend to have better verbal skills than boysGirls are generally more compliant than boys with the demands of parents and other adults more nurturing toward younger children and more fearful at older agesBoys have advantages in muscular development and lung and heart size compared with girls and they usually do better at activities involving strength and motor skillsMajority of boys have visualspatial abilities that allow them to read maps aim at targets and manipulate objects in space easilyAs newborns boys prefer to look at objects such as mechanical mobiles more than moving facesIn general boys are more physically active than girls they tend to play in larger groups and larger spaces and enjoy noises more strenuous physical games Interests and Activities in ChildhoodInfants express preferences by where and how long they stare
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