Textbook Notes (368,528)
Canada (161,957)
Psychology (1,899)
PSY311H5 (63)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Overarching Themes: Integrating Social Development

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Stuart Kamenetsky

NotesFromReadingCHAPTER14OVERARCHINGTHEMESINTEGRATINGSOCIALDEVELOPMENTPGS426439WHAT WE KNOW SOME TAKEHOME PRINCIPLESViews of the Social ChildThe Child is Socially Competent from an Early AgeoWhen they are born infants can use their sensory perceptual and motor capacities to respond to social signals and communicate their needs oIn their first year of life infants can use social referencing to guide their behaviour in uncertain situations and can produce social signals to alert others to interesting events oBy second year infants can infer that other people have thoughts feelings and intentionsthese socialemotional skills provide a foundation for continued social development The Childs Social Behaviour is OrganizedoSocial behaviours such as crying smiling and looking are organized response patterns that enable even very young infants to interact with othersoBased on experiences with their caregivers infants soon develop working models of their social world which serve as organizing guides that permit them to react to social patterns in orderly and predictable ways oAs they grow children use social information to evaluate social situations and decide on their next social movesThe Childs Social Behaviour Becomes Increasingly SophisticatedoAs children grow and mature social skills exhibited in rudimentary form at early ages become increasingly sophisticated and occur in complex contextsoChildren learn when to use their social skills and how to execute them in an everwidening range of circumstances oThey are able to deploy skills in circumstances involving more abstract tasks and in the face of competing demands The Child is Embedded in Levels of Social ComplexityoA child has dyadic interactions with another persona parent a peer a sibling or a strangerThese interactions depend on the characteristics of both people and reflect the sum and product of their behavioursoThere are triadic interactions involving the child and two other people such as mother and father or two siblingsoChildren develop longerterm relationships which depend on the participants shared history and expectations about future social interchanges oSocial Group is a network of social relationships with tis own rules and identityThese networks influence children indirectlyoThe highest level is where children are embedded in a society or culture with its traditions values beliefs and social institutions Childrens Interactions with Other People are Reciprocal and transactionaloFrom infancy onward children influence the behaviour of other people around them and are influenced by the reactions of these other people in return oInfants with an easy and engaging style are likely to elicit involved and pleasant reactions from their parents leading to mutually satisfying patterns of interactions infants with an irritable and difficult style are more likely to elicit negative reactionsoThe social behaviour of children and adults is constantly undergoing change as a result of this mutual influence processoThe resulting pattern of mutual modification over time is best described as transactional Organization and Explanation of Childrens Social Behaviour Aspects of Development are InterdependentoMotor skills language abilities cognitive functions and emotional competencies play a role in social development
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