regulation of markets, the decline of welfare state, the commodification of
public goods, demographic changes owing to increased global migrations,
changes in work arrangements towards flexible deployment, and
intensification of labour through longer hours, work fragmentation, multiple
jobs, and increasing non-standard forms of work
-in this policy environment, the social exclusion concept seeks to shift the
focus back to the structural inequalities that determine the intensity and
extent of marginalization in society
Social Exclusion in the Canadian Context
-social exclusion defines the inability of certain subgroups to participate fully
in Canadian life due to structural inequalities in access to social, economic,
political, and cultural resources arising out of the often intersecting
experiences of oppression as it relates to race, class, gender, disability, sexual
orientation, immigrant status and the like.
-the process of group or individual isolation within and from such key
Canadian societal institutions as the school system, the criminal justice
system and the health care system, as well as spatial isolation or
-social exclusion is also an expression of unequal relations of power among
groups in society which then determine unequal access to economic, social,
political, and cultural resources.
-the assertion of certain privileges come at the expense of, and
marginalization of others.
-in Canada, there are four identified groups of special risk: women, new
immigrants, racialized group members and Aboriginal peoples.
Racialization of Poverty
-As the Canadian population grew, the corresponding rate for racialized
groups was 21% higher.
-Over the same period, the racial component of the labour force grew by 28%
-with that shift has come a noticeable lag in social economic performance
among members of the groups
-These developments had numerous adverse social impacts, leading to
differential life chances for racialized group members
-the racialization of poverty is directly linked to the depending of oppression
and social exclusion of racialized and immigrant communities on one hand
and entrenchment of privileged access to economic opportunity for a small
but powerful section of the majority population on the other
-racialized community members and Aboriginal peoples are twice as likely to
be poor than other Canadians because of the intensified social and economic
exploitation of the racialized and Aboriginal communities whose members
have to endure historical racial and gender inequalities accentuated by the