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Chapter 13

chapter 13 notes

, Winter 2011
5 pages146 viewsWinter

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC263H5
Professor
Mary Jo Nadeau
Chapter
13

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Chapter 13
Introduction:
-Poor social and economic conditions and inequalities in access to resources
and services affect an individual or groups health and well-being
-Groups experiencing some form of social exclusion tend to sustain higher
health risks and lower health status
-Poverty is a key cause and product of social exclusion
-Racial and gender differences in health status tend to reflect differences in
social and economic conditions.
-Racialized poverty accounts for labour market segregation, low occupation
status, high and frequent unemployment status, substandard housing
combined with violent or distressed neighbourhoods, homelessness, poor
working conditions, extended hours of work or multiple jobs, experience with
everyday forms of racism and sexism, and lead to unequal health service
utilization, and differential health status.
-there have been links between the minority status of ethnic, immigrant and
racialized groups and low health status.
-socio-economic conditions in early life lead to increased health risks in
adulthood.
-racialized community members, recent immigrants, and refugee women,
men and their children, experience psycho-social stress of discrimination and
racism which contribute to such health problems as hypertension, mental
health, and behavioural problems such as substance abuse.
-research shows that the experience of racism and discrimination puts
racialized group members and immigrants at higher risk of mental health
problems.
Social Exclusion:
-Describes both structures and the dynamic processes of inequality among
groups in society which, over time, structure access to critical resources that
determine the quality of membership in society and ultimately produce and
reproduce a complex of unequal outcomes.
-in industrialized societies, social exclusion is a by product of a form of
unbridled accumulation whose processes commodify social relations and
intensify inequality along racial and gender lines
-In the post 9/11 era, racial profiling and new notions of national security
seem to have exacerbated the experience of this form of social exclusion
Social Exclusion in the Late Twentieth and Early Twenty-First
Century
-The intensification of social exclusion can be traced to the restructuring of
the global and national economies which emphasized deregulation and re-
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regulation of markets, the decline of welfare state, the commodification of
public goods, demographic changes owing to increased global migrations,
changes in work arrangements towards flexible deployment, and
intensification of labour through longer hours, work fragmentation, multiple
jobs, and increasing non-standard forms of work
-in this policy environment, the social exclusion concept seeks to shift the
focus back to the structural inequalities that determine the intensity and
extent of marginalization in society
Social Exclusion in the Canadian Context
-social exclusion defines the inability of certain subgroups to participate fully
in Canadian life due to structural inequalities in access to social, economic,
political, and cultural resources arising out of the often intersecting
experiences of oppression as it relates to race, class, gender, disability, sexual
orientation, immigrant status and the like.
-the process of group or individual isolation within and from such key
Canadian societal institutions as the school system, the criminal justice
system and the health care system, as well as spatial isolation or
neighbourhood segregation
-social exclusion is also an expression of unequal relations of power among
groups in society which then determine unequal access to economic, social,
political, and cultural resources.
-the assertion of certain privileges come at the expense of, and
marginalization of others.
-in Canada, there are four identified groups of special risk: women, new
immigrants, racialized group members and Aboriginal peoples.
Racialization of Poverty
-As the Canadian population grew, the corresponding rate for racialized
groups was 21% higher.
-Over the same period, the racial component of the labour force grew by 28%
-with that shift has come a noticeable lag in social economic performance
among members of the groups
-These developments had numerous adverse social impacts, leading to
differential life chances for racialized group members
-the racialization of poverty is directly linked to the depending of oppression
and social exclusion of racialized and immigrant communities on one hand
and entrenchment of privileged access to economic opportunity for a small
but powerful section of the majority population on the other
-racialized community members and Aboriginal peoples are twice as likely to
be poor than other Canadians because of the intensified social and economic
exploitation of the racialized and Aboriginal communities whose members
have to endure historical racial and gender inequalities accentuated by the
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