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key points for textbook readings for lecture 1

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC341H5
Professor
Lina Samuel

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Lecture 1 Chapter 4 Rudi Voltis text
THE ORGANIZATION OF WORK IN PREINDUSTRIAL TIMES
Work is organized in a specific way such that it entails what needs to be done, the
procedures to follow the equipment to be used, the time to be allocated and the
sequence of activities to be followed
Organization of work encompasses a variety of structures and processes
oTraditional base it has always been like this regardless if its effective or
not
oFunctional base-planned, rational and well thought out
Organization of work reflects existing social structures and processes
Traditional Societies and the Organization of Work
In hunting and gather societies, what needs to be done is clear and when to do it
too
How to allocate who will do it is dependent on ascribed characteristics ie.sex,
race, ethnicity
Age is more flexible in that in some societies, individuals age 14 would be
considered an adult whereas in other societies it is not
Women were relegated to the role of gathering while men to hunting
Tradtional farm work
Race is a biological category manifested by physical attributes ie skin colour, hair
texture and shape of facial features
Categorizing by race is arbitrary because it is a social construct that varies
Family as a base of organization
Being born to a family put one into an ascribed status
Use of family ties being incorporated into the organization of work where it
considered illegitimate to use family connections to get a job
www.notesolution.com
In pre industrial workplaces, much of the work was done in family settings
where work became the home and home the work
The men were perceived to be the head of the family and the enterprise
In agricultural societies, families had to be self sufficient in supply for
subsistence needs whereas in current times, it still holds the same but things
like luxuries and necessities are purchased than made at home
The home encompasses alot of work activities even though it may not lead to
direct pay such as child rearing, house hold chores
The home work is performed mostly by women
Family structures provides a hierarchy that reflects age and gender, with
fathers and older males usually exercising authority over women and
younger members of the family
Trust is key to maintaining the functioning of the family structures
It correlates to motivation as an employer punishes an employee for
dishonesty but in a family misuse of trust leads to greater repercussions such
as loss of respect
Honour and respect from supporting a family can be a great motivator for a
member to work hard
Slavery
Slavery uses ascribed statuses where race is a factor in determining which
groups will be subjected to become slave owners and workers
Slavery was used as a source of labour in ancient societies but still continued
in times like the medieval era
o medieval times, slavery workers were replaced as serfdoms who had
freedom but they were bound to the land they live on and worked on
Slavery had consequences for the work was organized ie. slaves in
industrial enterprises worked as skilled craftsmen
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 1 Chapter 4 Rudi Voltis text THE ORGANIZATION OF WORK IN PREINDUSTRIAL TIMES Work is organized in a specific way such that it entails what needs to be done, the procedures to follow the equipment to be used, the time to be allocated and the sequence of activities to be followed Organization of work encompasses a variety of structures and processes o Traditional base it has always been like this regardless if its effective or not o Functional base-planned, rational and well thought out Organization of work reflects existing social structures and processes Traditional Societies and the Organization of Work In hunting and gather societies, what needs to be done is clear and when to do it too How to allocate who will do it is dependent on ascribed characteristics ie.sex, race, ethnicity Age is more flexible in that in some societies, individuals age 14 would be considered an adult whereas in other societies it is not Women were relegated to the role of gathering while men to hunting Tradtional farm work Race is a biological category manifested by physical attributes ie skin colour, hair texture and shape of facial features Categorizing by race is arbitrary because it is a social construct that varies Family as a base of organization Being born to a family put one into an ascribed status Use of family ties being incorporated into the organization of work where it considered illegitimate to use family connections to get a job www.notesolution.com
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