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Chapter 5

ANTA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Stereopsis, Quadrupedalism, Color Vision

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Genevieve Dewar

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ANTA01 – Chapter 5 Key Concepts
Humans – Homo sapiens (genus, species)
- are bipedal (able to walk on to legs) *quadrupedal – walking on a four limbs
Evolution of Primates
T axonomy of 5 Species
Human Chimpanzee Bonobo Gorilla Orangutan
Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata
Class Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia
Order Primates Primates Primates Primates Primates
Family Hominidae Pongidae Pongidae Pongidae Pongidae
Genus Homo Pan Pan Gorilla Pongo
Species sapiens troglodytes paniscus gorilla pygmaeus
humans shares the same kingdom with the other 4 species
- differ in the since of family , the others are in the family of the apes (pongidae)
- ingest food, have sense organs, nervous systems and mobile
not members of the other three kingdoms of eukaryotes (ex. Like fungi, plants and single-celled
Phylum-Chordata, because they have a bony spine (descendant of the notochord)
Mammalia(warm-blooded) Class – species usually have a constant body temperature, have hair, give
birth to live young, nourish the young with milk from mammary glands and have large and complex
Chimp and Bonobo relationship – more similar because they diverged from an ancestor recently
Fossil record show that: - based on cladistic analysis
- the orangutan line diverged the earliest
- gorilla line after
- humans and chimpanzees/bonobo more recent
Phenetic scheme (looks at phenotypic and adaptive relationships)
- shows that a family division is apparent between hominids (humans) and pongids(apes), that's why the
other 4 species look more similar to each other (phenotypically)
Cladistics ( looks at branches) orangutans are placed in the family pongide and the the rest are in
hominidae, but are subdivided into subfamilies
Primates – arboreal(tree-dwelling), humans are kind of the same though they are bipedal, they
adapt well to the arboreal environment (senses, locomotion, reproduction, intelligence and behavior
*creates variation
SENSES- acquires info about the environment, primates best sense is VISION (in color)
- they have stereoscopic vision – 3d vision, depth perception (reduced senses in others)
LOCOMOTION – most mammals are quadrupedal, able to grasp objects (prehensile) – use this trait for
many forms of locomotion (ex. Branchiation – able to swing from tree to tree with arms and hands)
*orangutans use their fist - opposablity, able to pick up stuff (have fingers and flat nails)
REPRODUCTION - usually have a single offspring at a time, take direct care of their offspring
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