Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
ANTA01H3 (100)
Chapter 10

ANTA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Zhoukoudian, Sangiran, Solo Man

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
Chapter 10 - A New Kind of Hominin
*Acheulian: Lower Paleolithic stone tool industry that includes bifacially worked hand axes and cleavers and many kinds of flake
tools. Began as early as 1.4 mya in Africa, and spread to many parts of the temperate to tropical parts of Europe and Asia. Ended 200
000 ya.
-Homo Erectus - dated to 1.8 mya. There were several anatomical differences between the African and Asian hominins and thus, the
Asian ones were given the name Erectus and the African ones were called the Ergaster
-but they’re all closely related and therefore, they are all referred to as the homo erectus
*Grade: an evolutionary grouping of organisms showing a similar adaptive pattern. Isn’t necessarily based on closeness of
evolutionary relationship, but it does contrast organisms in a useful way. Does not imply anything about shared ancestry (clade)
Homo Erectus:
-populations lived in very different environments over much of the Old World; but were alike in many ways
Body Size:
- Homo erectus was larger than earlier hominins
- based on “Nariokotome Boy”, from Nariokotome, Kenya
-Weighed well over 100 pounds
-average height: 5’6”
-quite sexually dimorphic
-increased height and weight are also associated with a dramatic increase in robusticity
Brain Size:
- Early Homo had brain sizes from 500cm³ to 800cm³, erectus had a cranial capacity from 900cm³ to 1250cm³
-Since brain size is closely linked with body size, then this means the Erectus was also considerably larger overall
Cranial Shape:
-cranium is heavily built in thick cranial bone. large browridges above the eyes, + projecting nuchal torus at rear of skull
-braincase is long and low, receding from large browridges with little forehead development
-cranium is wider at the base compared with earlier AND later homo species
-Maximum cranial breadth is below the ear opening, giving the cranium a pentagonal shape if viewed from behind
-the skulls of the early Homo and H. sapiens have more vertical sides with the maximum width above the ear opening
-most also have a sagittal ridge (sagittal keel) - which runs front to back along the sagittal suture
*Nuchal Torus: projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach; used to hold up head
Key Homo Erectus Discoveries from Africa
Dates Site Evolutionary Significance
1.4 mya Olduvai Large individual, very robust (male?) H. erectus
1.6 mya Nariokotome (W. Turkana) Nearly complete skeleton; young male
1.8 mya E. Turkana Oldest well-dated H. erectus; great amount of variation seen among individuals,
possibly due to sexual dimorphism
Key Homo Erectus Discoveries from Asia
Dates Site Evolutionary Significance
50,000-25,000 ya Ngandong (Java) Very late survival of H.erectus in Java
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version