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ANTC68H3 Chapter Notes -Tuberculosis, Neocolonialism, Brazilian Purpuric Fever


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC68H3
Professor
Bryce

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ANTC68 WINTER 2013
Week # 9: “Rethinking Emerging Infectious Diseases by Farmer 1999a
Renewed interest in epidemics and new and newly virulent pathogens
We have technologies that give us greater detail and insight in their processes and methods of
pathogens
Explosion of emerging infectious diseases
o Some are actually new such as AIDS and Brazilian purpuric fever
o Some were previously identified and only lately have burst on the scene again in a
dramatic fashion Hantaan viruses, Ebola, Lyme Disease
o Others are ancient still and somehow changed recently in pathogenicity or distribution
flesh eating bacteria
Ecological and economic transformations are leading to the increased contact between humans and
vectors
Popularizing the concept of “emerging infectious diseases” has been useful in mobilizing public
and private will and resources to combat these diseases that are usually halted by large
bureaucracies, there is a sense of urgency
There are symbolic burdens to emerging infectious diseases
o These are ancient diseases sometimes so are they “emerging” cause all of a sudden we
care more?
We need more epistemology the reflexive study of processes, units of analysis and key terms
Causative Co factors: ecological changes, economic development, climate change, demographic
changes and behavior, travel and commerce, technology and industry, microbial adaptation and
change and breakdown of public health measures
Human actions have played a larger role in ENHANCING pathogenicity or increasing resistance
to antimicrobial agents anthropogenesis of disease emergence
We need a CRITICAL epistemology of emerging diseases
o We need to develop certain sensitivity to the terms we are used to
Reduction of poverty in addition improve housing, land drainage, (electric fans,
nets, mosquito repellants for malaria)
Tropical disease is a term that must be critiqued because once long ago malaria
the tropical disease has also affected US by a large part implies a geographic
rather than SOCIAL topography
o Health Transitions nation states as they develop go through predictable epidemiologic
transformations
Go from infectious to more non communicable diseases and causes of mortality
However, there are differentials within nationalities of morbidity and mortality
and it is more a function of local inequalities than nationality
o Units of Analysis
The dynamics of a disease emergence is not captured on a nation by station
analyses any more than the diseases are contained by national boundaries
Body
The limitation of these three important ways of viewing the health of populations the concepts of
tropical medicine, health transitions and national health profiles demonstrate that models and even
assumptions about infectious diseases need to be DYNAMIC, SYSTEMIC and CRITICAL
Need to relate the microbial phenomena to greater social forces that shape the contours of disease
emergence
o World bank policies linked to the spread of HIV for example
Study of anything emerging needs to be dynamic
o We need to pay attention to the underlying social-historical influences on behavioral
choices, patterns and population health
Systemic analyses of disease emergence are not hemmed in by political or administrative borders
Critical and self-critical approach - would ask how existing frameworks might limit our ability to
discern trends that are related to the emergence of diseases
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