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Chapter 9

Human Antiquity Textbook Notes - Ch. 9

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Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 9The Human Lineage EvolvesPleistocenedeep freezeThe first members of the genus Homowhen the Leakey family found Zinjanthropus in 1959 the also found simple stone tools at the same level of the Olduvai Gorge knew that the zinji was to primitive to make those toolsLower Paleolithic Early Stone Ageearliest period of hominid toolmaking in Africa Europe and Asia Dates as much as 25 mya Africa to about 250 000 ya throughout the old world tools called the Oldowan after Olduvai Gorgeare very simplealso called pebble tools pebble tools earliest type of hominid stone tool made from water smoothed stones with a few flakes taken off one or both sides having sharp edges 34 inches acrosstools can be made from its method or manufacture need some imagination because the tool requires the maker to imagine what the tool heshe makes does and the process needed to make it this was a great increase in technological skills reason for the importance of stone makingPast authorities believed that Oldowan tools were all core tools and the flakes were the waste products of the manufacturecore tool a tool made by taking a flake off a stone nucleusNOW seen that flake tools may also have been used as tools majority were raw materials for the manufacture of flake tools FT a tool made from a flake removed from a stone core used for a variety of tasks like cutting the bonemeat scraping the meat off a boneOldowan tools were decided on the merit of stones believed to be more superior there creating sharp edges and durabletherefore cores cannot be found as much as flakes in sites shows planning no evidence in the manufacture among early hominid of stone tools like bone tools Australopithecus and Paranthropus had features which allowed the dexterity to make stone tools there have been some tools that date back further then when homo evolved but mostly toolmaking is related to homoHomo habilis was found in the same area as Zinjanthropus known as handyman shows an increase in brain size from an avg of 480ml for Australopithecus and Paranthropus to an avg of 680mlwith a maximum of 800ml flatter face smoother contours lack of a sagital crestrounded braincase compared to other early hominids the presence of the stone tools indicate that their large brain sizes were capable of this complexity marks the beginning evolution of a trend towards bigger brains and greater intelligence fossils found in many sties like Kenya Ethiopia Tanzania date back 23 16mya species from East Turkana Kenyaare considered different and placed in a new speciesHomo rudolfensis has a larger body and brain size than H Habilis lacks the continuous brow ridge over the eyes some believe that H habilis and H rudolfensis should be lumped together as habilis BUT then some believe the two species are closer to Australopithecus than the genera Homo based on body proportions continued arboreal activity and the brain size relative to body size others agree that H habilis should be lumped in Australopithecusrudolfensis remain in Homo evolutionary relationships the arm leg proportions of early Homo resemble A africanus long armsshort legs than they do with A afarensis later our limb lengths change short armslong legs
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