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ANTA01 Ch 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Ch 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 71104 Genetics the study of inheritanceParticulate the idea that biological traits are controlled by individual factors rather than by a single hereditary agentGregor Mendel 18221884 discovered that inheritance was particulate by breeding pea plants organisms traits are passed through generation by individual particles genesGene the portion of the DNA molecule that codes for a specific proteina set of chemical instructions to produce proteinProtein the family of molecules that makes cellscarried cellular functionsEnzymes a protein that controls chemical processes Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA the molecule that carries the genetic codeDNA strands are wrapped around protein cores that make up chromosomes strand of DNA in the nucleus of cells the genetic code is made up of bases adenine Athymine T and cytosine Cguanine GReplication as the helix unwinds the unpaired bases pick up the complementary bases found in the solution of the cellthis allows the copying of the genetic code during cell divisionCodon a consecutive sequence of 3 DNA bases that codes for a particular protein they can be 3letter words a gene then is a sequence of codons a sentence made of many wordsProtein Synthesis the process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell Messenger ribonucleic acid mRNAthe molecule that carries the genetic code of the nucleus for translation into proteinsTransfer RNARNA that lines up amino acids along mRNA to make proteins as only one strand of the DNA unwinds messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA is placed next to the strand mRNA copies the gene by matching
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