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ANTA01 Ch 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Ch 12 Agriculture after 12 000 yaThe changing climate Holocene cultural devlpt 1 Ppl changed their focus to animalsplants that werent extinctlocally available 2 Diff responses to diff envtcultural diversity3 A broader range of resources was exploited small game fish birds plants 4 A food diet was narrowed to more productive elements 5 Nomadic existence sedentaryMesolithic the name given to cultures in Europethe end of the Pleistocenebefore the agricultural revolution Foraging a subsistence strategy based on any combo of wild food resources including collecting wild plants hunting wild animals fishingshellfish collectingAgriculture a subsistence strategy based on domesticated plant foods Opportunistic foragers huntergatherers whose highly flexible subsistence system allows them to exploit whatever resources become available in their area whenever they become availablePracticed by the inhabitants in the Siebenlinden site in Germany The Mesolithic staple was hazelnut Archaic time period in the New World that follows the PaleoIndian periodMarked the beginning of regionalization ie Pinon nuts were the staple diet of the desert westeastern cultures adapted to the coast Shell Mound Archaic a postPleistocene adaptation in the American southeast marked by the devlpt of largedense human popn that exploited shellfishconstructed great ceremonial mounts out of shells Americas deer duck geese sunflower seeds acorns shellfish marsh elderEast Asia Bamboo rat otter crab porcupineAfricaME gazelle hippo buffalo The abundance of grinding stones used for processing seeds points to a focus on plants for food Foodproducing revolutionagricultural revolution the shift f foraging to food production through domestication beginning after 12 000 yaNeolithic literally new stone age now refers to the period of the beginning of agricultureFood supply sedentism popn growth social structures social hiearchies Domesticate to change through artificial selection the wild form of a plant or animal to a more useful form to humans the term used for he end product of this process Artificial selection the process where humans choose the plant or animal that will live and reproduce based on its useful characteristics The wolf was one of the first species domesticated by humansCanis lupis wolf Canis familiaris species of all domesticated dogs poodles German shepherds Chihuahuas Desirable traits of animal or plant food species would be allowed to survivereproduce while the undesirable traits would be eliminated genetic mutations result in the size changes of dogs Osteologist a scientist whose speciality is the study of bonesAgriculture is more risky than huntinggathering bc the former reqs energy time labour prepharvesting if only the harvest succeedspresents lower nutrition whereas the latter can simply move
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