ANTA02 – Cultural Anthropology; Chapter 5
Identity: learned personal and social types of affiliation, including gender, sexuality, race, class,
nationalism, and ethnicity, for example.
Enculturation: the process through which individuals learn an identity. This can encompass parental
sociolization, the influence of peers, mass media, governments, or other forces.
Imagined community: a term coined by Benedict Anderson in 1983. It refers to the fact that even in the
absence of face-to-face interactions, a sense of community is culturally constructed by forces such as
the mass media.
Natures VS Nurture: coined by Francis Galton in 2974. References a longstanding scholarly debate
concerning whether or not human behaviors and identities are the result of nature (biological) or
Individualistic: a view of the self in which the individual is primarily responsible for his or her own
Holistic: when an individual's sense of self cannot be conceives as existing separately from society or
apart from his or her status or role.
Egocentric: a view of the self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity, as the location of
motivations and drives, and as capable of acting independently from others.
Sociocentric: a context-dependent view of self. The self exists as an entity only within the concrete
situations or roles occupied by the person.
Rites of Passage: coined in 1908 by Arnold Van Gennep. Refers to rituals that accompany changes in
status. Such as the transition from boyhood to manhood, living to dead, or student to graduate.
Principle of reciprocity: according to Marcel Mauss, gift giving involves reciprocity. The idea it that the
exchange of gifts creates a feeling of obligation, in that the gift must be repaid.
Kula ring: A system of inter-island gift exchange documented by anthropologist Malinowski in the
Trobriand Islands. It involves the exchange of shell necklaces and armbands. According to Malinowski,
the kula ring serves, among other things, to create alliances and social ties among individuals living on
Potlach: a celebration, usually involving elaborate feasting and the redistribution of gifts, found among
any indigenous Northwest Coast groups, such as the Tsimshian. The potlach is a means of creating a new
identity or of reinforcing social status within a group.
Commodity: Traditionally, commodities are ties that involve a transfer of value and a counter-transfer:
A sells something to B, and the transaction is finished. A longstanding personal relationship between
buyer and seller is not established. This is typical of capitalist market-exchange systems.
Indigenous peoples: groups of people whose ancestors pre-dat