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ANTB14H3 (34)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Schillaci

How Human Evolved Week 1 Chapter 1: Adaptation By Natural Selection Organisms more than just suited to their environments: they are complex machines, made up of many exquisitely constructed components, or adaptations, that interact to help the organisms survive and reproduce Human eye is good example of adaptation o Allow us to move confidently through environment o To locate critical resources like food and mates o To avoid dangers like predators and cliffs o Light enters eye through transparent opening, passes through iris, regulates amount of light entering eye and allows eye to function in wide range of lighting conditions Lens in human o Camera like o Shaped like squashed football and has same index of refraction throughout o Light is bent when it passes from air through cornea Lens in fish o Sphere located at center of curvature of retina, index of refraction of lens increases smoothly from surface of lens to center o Spherical gradient lens provides sharp image over full 180 visual field, very short focal length and high light gathering power o Light is not bent when it passes from water through cornea of aquatic animals Darwins Postulates 1. Struggle for existence: ability of population to expand is f
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