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Joyce Parga

January 12 2012Introduction to PrimatesChapter 1 pg 129 y Species individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing viable fertile offspring y Comparative Genomics studies that compare the genome sequences of different species to better understand the structural and functional similarities and differences in their genes and the evolutionary relationships among species y Hierarchicala pecking order usually established through direct contests y Agonistic aggressive and submissive interactions y Egalitarian the absence of a hierarchy or pecking order access to resources is more likely to be determined by who gets to them first than by any other attributes of individuals y Natal Groups the group into which an individual is born y Affiliative Bonds strong associations among individuals usually manifested by higher rates of proximity and nonaggressive social interactions y Patrilines related to one another through paternal descent y Nonhuman primates have been described as representing the boundary that separates humans from other animals y Phylogenetic evolutionary relationships of species to one another y Primates are excellent models for identifying our ancestral traits y Ultimate the adaptive significance of a trait y Function the purpose a trait serves in increasing an individuals fitness y Proximate the neural and physiological mechanisms that regulate behaviour y Ontogenetic the processes and mechanisms involved in development y Ethnographic an approach that involves the description of cultures human or otherwise y Habituated the point at which animals cease to alter their behaviour in the presence of human observers y Once primates are habituated to the presence of an observer they go about their business as usual instead of fleeing or halting their activities when humans are near y Habituation is essential for seeing how primates behave when they are not on their guard y Primates with little or no prior experience of humans may exhibit more curiosity than fear y But with primates that have already learned to avoid humans who hunt them or disturb their habitat the process of habituation can be challenging y Ethograms the repertory of behaviours exhibited by a species y Grooming the removal of dirt or other objects from the skin or fur which may be performed by another individual allogrooming or by ones self allogrooming is considered to be a social activity y Anthropocentric humanfocused perspective y Arboreal treedwelling y New World monkeys in Central and South America share only a distant ancestry to humans y Semiterrestrial primates that spend significant proportions of their time on the ground y Woodland habitat with continuous tree cover but less dense than forest often open canopy y Savanna tropical grassland y Terrestrial grounddwelling y Primates on the ground are more vulnerable to attacks by predators such as lions and other large carnivores than their arboreal cousinslive in large coordinated troops y Jane Goodallchimpanzees Dian Fosseymountain gorillas Birute Galdikasorangutans Louis Leakey y The great apes are thought to be most similar in size biology and behaviour to the first human ancestors y Comparisons among the same or closely related primates living in different habitats would reveal whether their behaviour was responsive to the different ecological pressures they faced or whether speciestypical patterns in behaviour established during their evolutionary history prevailed y Early Classification Schemes o Activity PatternsAll primates must rest eat and travel between food sources while also avoiding predators when they have themActivity Budgets amount and distribution of time allocated to different activitiesMost primates are diurnalDiurnal active during daylight hours and inactive or sleeping at nightCathemeral active during both the day and nightNocturnal nightactivePrimates with different activity patterns are vulnerable to different kinds of predators and therefore vary in their predator sensitivityPredator Sensitivity the degree to which primates adjust their behaviour to reduce their risks as prey variation in predator sensitivity may also reflect differences in an individuals vulnerability to predators
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