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ANTC15H3 (3)
Chapter 10

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTC15H3
Professor
Douglas Frayne
Semester
Fall

Description
- Demeter: - goddess of grain and the rich harvest - "meter" means mother - Persephone: - Demeter's daughter and Zeus - often called Kore,meaning daughter or girl - she is a parthenos,an unmarried virgin - Demeter and Persephone were often called theTwo Demeters or theTwo Goddesses:the permanently fertile earth and the seasonal giver of grain - Hades,lord of death,abducts Persephone after she reaches for the sweet scented blossoms on the ground and carries her away as his bride.Demeter enraged,refused to allow the grain to grow until a compromise was reached by which Persephone spends a third of the year in Hades' house and two thirds in the world above - Persephone cried to Zeus while she was being abducted but only Perses and Lord Helius heard her and Hecate as well - Hyperion is the one that tells Demeter that Hades abducted Persephone - Celeus:son of Eleusis - Daughters of Celeus and Metaneira:Callithoe,Callidice,Demo,and Clisidice - Doso is the name Demeter makes up to ^,and she lies and tells them she was brought there by pirate men and asks what house she should approach for employment and they suggest their house where Demeter could babysit her mothers new child,Demophoon - Demeter fed the child with ambrosia,food of the gods - Hermes goes to Hades to rescue Persephone - Hades gives Persephone a pomegranate to eat this making it certain that she could not remain forever by the side of Demeter - Demeter: - theWheat goddess,protected agriculture - a mother-goddess in origin,closely associated with Persephone also called Kore - the abduction of Persephone.Demeter's distress and wanderings.The pomegranate.Childlessness -The agricultural allegory - Hades,earth,Persephone,seed.The seasons -The Eleusinian Mysteries: - Mystes "the one who closes" the eyes and mouth of Demeter's huge templeTelesterion (hall of initiation) in Eleusis and initiatus comes our word initiate,overall means "one who has gone in",that is into the temple of Demeter to participate in the sacred ritual - In origin,the mysteries were designed to promote the growth of grain.The families in charge were:the Eumolpids,whose ancestor received them from Demeter herself,and the Kerykes "heralds" who provided the torchbearer and the herald - the high priest was called the hierophant "he who reveals the hiera (sacred things)" -Annual ceremony of the mysteries,in the fall - kykeon:a sacred drink offered to Demeter in the hymn -Anaktoron:palace,place of the king -Triptolemus:one of the princes in Eleusis to who Demeter taught her secret rites -The Eleusinian Mysteries,as a magical rite:ensured the growth of grain,as personal experience:promised a happy afterlife - Inanna and Dumuzi: - Inanna:queen of heaven,goddess of love and war - she decided to descend to the underworld either because she wanted to become queen of the dead (she was already queen of the living) or because she wanted to bring the dead back to life.She dressed in her best clothes and jewels and set off to the "land of no return".She entered the underworld and soon came to the temple of her sister,Ereshkigal,made all of lapis lazuli.She gives the gatekeeper a false explanation on why is she there,but before letting her in,the gatekeeper consults Ereshkigal who's face grows dark,slaps her thighs and bites her lips.Ereshkigal instructs the gatekeeper to lead Inanna inward through the seven gates of the underworld,but he was to follow "the ancient rites".At each gate,guards forced Inanna to remove a piece of her clothing or jewelry.At the first gate, she gave up her crown.At the second gate,she gave up her earrings.At the third gate,she gave up her beads around her neck;fourth,the brooches at her breast;at the fifth,the girdle of birthstones around her waist;at the sixth,the bangles on her wrists and ankles;at the seventh she took off her beautiful dress.When she came into the presence of Ereshkigal,she was stark naked.Undaunted,Inanna pulled Ereshkigal from her throne and sat down herself,but theAnnunaki gods,the 7 dread judges of the underworld, condemned her to death.She turned into a side of meat,green with decay, and was hung on a stake.This caused all sexual activity on earth to come to a halt.When Inanna did not return,her minister went to Enki for help.From the dirt beneath Enki's nails,he fashioned 2 mysterious sexless beings,to which he gave the food and water of life and told them what to do when they came to Ereshkigal.These 2 went to the underworld,there they found the queen of the dead sick with grief of the children of the world who had died before their time.They joined her in lamentation so she offered them anything they wanted:they asked for the green piece of meat hanging in the corner and so the 2 brought Inanna back to life.In order for her to leave the underworld,she had to leave someone in her place and she chose Dumuzi,her husband,because she found him dressed in finery,seated at the throne.Dumuzi asks Utu for help,but the demons catch him and kill him but he is allowed to return to the world one day each year - Dumuzi:Inanna's lover,shepherd-god - hieros gamos:sacred marriage - Isis and Osiris: - Isis: - means throne - equivalent to Demeter - Osiris united in love with Isis while still in Rhea's womb.Osiris abolished can
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