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Chapter 1

chapter 1

4 Pages
Fall 2010

Biological Sciences
Course Code

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My Notes Chapter 1Lecture 1 11 What is Biology y Biology is the scientific study of living thingsBiologists define living things as all the diverse organism descended from a singlecelled ancestor that appeared almost 4 billion years agoy Most living organismConsist of one or more cellsContain genetic informationUse genetic information to reproduce themselvesAre genetically related and have evolvedCan convert molecules obtained from their environment into new biological moleculesCan extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological workCan regulate their internal environment y Through differential survival and reproduction living systems evolve and become adapted to Earths many environments y Some organisms are unicellular consisting of a single cell that carries out all functions of life while others are multicellular made up of a number of cells that are specialized for different functionsy Cell Theory Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organismsCells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organismsAll cells come from preexisting cellsAll cells are similar in chemical compositionMost of the chemical reactions of life occur within cellsComplete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division y Evolution any gradual changeAny genetic and resulting phenotypic change in organisms from generation to generationthe differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various y Natural Selectiongenetic types belonging to the same population y Species the basic lower unit of classification consisting of an ancestordescendant lineage of populations of closely related and similar organismsstructural physiological or behavioural traits that enhance an organisms chances y Adaptationsof survival and reproduction in its environment y A cells instructionsor blueprints for existenceare contained in its genomeGenome the sum total of all the DNA molecules in the cell y DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the fundamental hereditary material of all living organismsIn eukaryotes stored primarily in the cell nucleusA nucleic acid using deoxyribose rather than ribosethe basic chemical unit in a nucleic acidA nucleotide in RNA consists of one of four y Nucleotidenitrogenous bases linked to ribose which in turn is linked to phosphateIn DNA deoxyribose is present instead of riboseone of the most fundamental building substances of living organismsA longchain y Proteinspolymer of amino acids with twenty different common side chains
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