BIOC51H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Phylogenetic Tree, Synapomorphy

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The comparative method seeks to evaluate hypotheses by testing for patterns across species, such as correlations among traits, or correlations between traits and features of the environment. Pattern shows as a bat species evolved larger roosting group sizes than its species -> also evolved larger testes for body size. Phylogeny: evolutionary history of a group of species. Phylogenetic tree: graphical summary of this history. The most closesly related taxa should have the most traits in common. Synapomorphy: homologous trait that is shared amongst certain species and is similar b/c it was modi ed in a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are comprised of an ancestor and all of its descendents. E. g. all living organisms (shared genetic code) Bacteria + mammals = same monophyletic group, but each have synapomorphies that identify them as distinct monophyletic groups. All synapomorphies are homologous traits, but not all homologous traits are synapomorphies (can be identi ed @ all taxa levels)

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