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Chapter 18

BIOA01- Chapter 18 Textbook notes combined with lecture notes with images from lecture powerpoints. Some abbreviations I might have used: pop = population. Evol= evolution.

20 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mary Olaveson

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Ch 18 Species 181 Whats in a Name Pg 396 y Communication affects both inter and intraspecific behavior o Like monkeys signaling for eagle or leopard y Names to distinguish between categories of objects o ach species has a scientific nameLatinized descriptions of the organism bearing the name 182 Definition of Species Pg 396 y biologists use names to precisely identify speciessubspecies or varieties y traditionally morphological features were most important to identify species but now behavioural and genetic features are more commonly usedy molecular markers are also becoming important to identify and separate species y Speciesa Latin word meaning kind or appearance y Species are the fundamental taxonomic units of biological classification y Biological species concept defines species as group of organisms that can successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring but are unable to produce viable fertile offspring with members of other populations o problemsworks with sexually reproducing species does not work with those that reproduce asexuallyspecies that hybridize and produce fertile offspringHybridization two species interbreed and produce fertile offspring y Many hybridize naturally in the wild y 10 of 8000 species of birds hybridize naturally and produce fertile offspring o Genetic cohesiveness of speciesPops of same species are said to experience gene flow that mixes their genetic material and could be glue holding a species together o Pops of diff species are reproductively isolated cannot exchange genetic info o Process of speciation is frequently defined as the evolution of reproductive isolation between pops o This concept could explain why individuals of a species generally look alikeShare genetic traits genotype which is diff from other species y MorphologicalSpeciesConcept defines a species as all individuals that share measurable traits distinguishing them from individuals of other species o characterizes a species in terms of its body shape size and other structural featuresy Phylogenetic Species concept defines species as a group of organisms bound by a unique ancestry y Ecological Species conceptdefines species as a group of organisms that share a distinct ecological niche y o one definition of species in biology is uniformly used or subscribed to by all biologists 183 Gene Flow Four examples Pg 399 y Gene flow occurs within populations of single species o Species that reproduce sexually and whose geographic distributions are relatively continuous y Several influences that can affect gene flow have been revealed using DNA technology tools o Distributionendemicspecies y Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location y narrow or very localized distributioncosmopolitan speciesy widespread even global distributiono Species Dependencewidespread distribution of egglaying snail depends on migratory bird species o SocialBehavioursocial behaviour may affect degree of gene flow between potentially interacting populationsgene flow may depend on which members of a population carry the genetic variationexample of rat It can interbreed but its social behavior doesnt make it happen o Habitat
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