Chapter 4 to 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Chapter 4 Cell Structure Cell Theory Basic units of life All organisms are composed of cells All cells come from pre-existing cells Cells Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes - Lack membrane-enclosed organelles - Loosely organized in nucleiod regions in cytoplasm - Have plasma membrane and ribosomes - Cell wall gives support Eukaryotes - Have internal cytoskeleton for support - Have membrane-enclosed organelles Process information Nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes Control function Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomesvacuoles Process energy Mitochondria, Chloroplasts Provide structure Cytoskeleton, extracellular components - Formation led to increase in size and complexity - How? Infolding of cell membrane, endosymbiosis of membrane-bound organelles Chapter 3 - Macromolecules Amino Acid > Polypeptide (protein) Monosaccharide (sugar) > Polysaccharide (carbohydrate) Nucleotide > Nucleic Acid Carbohydrate - H C OH - Monosaccharide: simple sugar (glucose energy for cells) bind from condensation to form glycosidic linkages - Disaccharide: >2 - Oligosaccharide 2-20 monosaccharides ABO blood groups - Polysacharride 100+ Starch: storage of glucose in plants Glycogen: storage of glucose in animals Cellulose: very stable, good for structural components - Ribose & deoxyribose (5 carbon sugar) Lipids - Fats and oils energy storage
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