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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 44

Chapter 44 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Fear and survival in the brain -amygdala is the brains center for emotion and memory of fear -when cells in amygdale are activated, heart beats faster, breathing becomes rapid and shallow, hands get cold and clammy -a person with amygdale does not have reflex to pull away from a threat has trouble engaging in normal social relationship cannot read nature, mood, or intentions of other by reading their facial expression What Cells are Unique to the nervous System? -nervous systems are composed of neurons and glia -neurons are excitable and can generate and send action potential -extensions of neuron are axons, which conduct action potential over long distance -glia do not conduct action potentials -support neurons physically and metabolically -nerve is a bundle of axons that come from many neurons -neurons are organized into 3 categories of cells 1) input, 2) integration, 3) output -afferent neurons carry sensory information into nervous system -sensory information comes from sensory neurons that convert input into action potential -efferent neurons carry commands to effectors, like muscles and glands -interneurons integrate information and facilitate communication between sensors and effectors Neuronal networks range in complexity -cnidarians nerve net is developed around tentacles and oral opening facilitate detection of food or danger that causes tentacles to extend or retract -ganglia are clusters of a number of neurons -animals that are bilaterally symmetrical, ganglia come in pair, one on each side of the body -in complex animals, one pair of ganglia is larger than the others -in vertebrates, most cells of the nervous system are found in brain and spinal cord -brain and spinal cord are called central nervous system (CNS) -information is transmitted from sensory cells to central nervous system and from central nervous system to effectors -neurons that extend outside of brain and spinal cord are called peripheral nervous system (PNS) -synapses are the gap between two neurons -presynaptic neuron is the cell that sends the message -postsynaptic neuron is the cell that receives message Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems -neurons have 4 regions: cell body, dendrites, axon, and axon terminals -cell body contains nucleus and most of the cells organelles, projection sprout from cell body -dendrites are the projection that brings information from other neurons to the cell body www.notesolution.com
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