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CHMB42H3 (16)
Chapter 16

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Wanda/ Lana

Carbonyl Compounds INomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid DerivativesCarbonyl Group a carbon double bonded to oxygenAcyl Group consists of a carbonyl group attached to an alkyl group or to an aryl group ArCarboxylic Acid Derivatives differ from a carboxylic acid only in the nature of the group or atom that replaced the OH group of the carboxylic acid amides esters acyl halides and acid anhydridesWeak bases are good leaving groups and strong bases are poor leaving groups because weak bases do not share their electrons lower pKa the stronger the acid and weaker its conjugate baseNaming Carboxylic AcidsoCarboxylic acid is named by replacing the terminal e of alkane with oic acidoThe carbonyl carbon is always the C1 carbon or acarbonoCarboxyl Group the functional group of a carboxylic acidoCarboxylic acids in which a carboxyl group is attached t a ring are named by adding carboxylic acid to the name of the cyclic compoundNaming Acyl HalidesoAcyl Halides have a Cl or Br in place of the OH group of a carboxylic acidoAcyl halides are named by using the acid name and replacing ic acid with yl chloride or yl bromideAcid Anhydride loss of water from two molecules of a carboxylic acidoSymmetrical Anhydride if the two carboxylic acid molecules forming the acid anhydride are the same named by taking the acid name and replacing acid with anhydride acetic anhydrideoMixed Anhydride if they are different named by stating the names of both acids in alphabetical order followed by anhydride acetic formic anhydrideNaming EstersoEster has an OR group in place of the OH group of a carboxylic acidoThe name of the group R attached to the carboxyl oxygen is stated first followed by the name of the acid with ic acid replaced by ate ethyl acetateoLactones cyclic esters and are named as 2oxacycloalkanonesNaming AmidesoAmide has an NH NHR or NR group in place of the OH group of a 22carboxylic acidoAmides are named by taking the acid name and replacing oic acid ic acid or ylic acid with amide acetamide or benzamideoIf a substituent is bonded to the nitrogen the name of the substituent is stated first followed by the name of the amide the name of each substituent is preceded by a capital N to indicate that the substituent is bonded to a nitrogen NcyclohexylpropanamideoLactams cyclic amides they are named as 2azacycloalkanonesNaming NitrilesoNitriles compounds that contain a CN functional group cyano groupoNitriles are named by adding nitrile to the parent alkane nameoThe triplebonded carbon of the nitrile group is counted in the number of carbons in the longest continuous chainoNitriles are named by replacing ic acid of the carboxylic acid name
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