Chapter 2 notes

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16 Apr 2011
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
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
!"
Tectonics!#$%& ' $'(&)$
!##&#!&*!!#&#$ '&$!+&#!+
(# )!+ !+$,#-)!
Plate Tectonics*!!#&!$ . $$&/'+ -
!(.!/%$'! 0
Plate boundaries!(./%&(+!
+/$!
''!1!(!(-!##!&
2#!$#&(3
Plate tectonic theory$.$)%4
Continental drift  !(.&%.*!!#&+
' ' ! !.
Sea floor spreading
%! !!&&(!!&( $5
$'!+(.! 0%/%&( $'!/$
6
/! $!& $'(. '! $ !
/$ $!%.."
The Early Case for Continental Drift
&$'
7' !
Continental drift
8( $ !.$ 0 -!$
&!!!
Pangea !&(' !# 
#! !# 2( 3
$/$!#!# 
Paleoclimatology!#$%& (
8( $ !$ (%-!$ !.$
(!#!!#''!$! !.%
$ &&!!
Skepticism about Continental Drift
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9.!!!$! !$ &$#'
#!+#('#(# '! $ '$'!!
%#!$' !#!27:3
Renewed Interest in Continental Drift
#$%&;
o(!&-!$!$ (!)-&(!
&)%4
<6Rock Dredge! $''$.
)($&)
6Corer/ '$! $$.%
(#$$!$&&
=6Sea-floor drilling $  '$!
&
oSubmersibles!(!!#)( !&'' !!
oSingle-bean echo sounder(!#!/$$
$/!&!&!#)( '%
<6!#$!!$//$&(!$)#!
&&!&$#!!
6$>(#& ( .
oSidescan sonar(!#!! %&!#$&$
)-/.&(&$. $!
$$('!&!&$&()#
!$ (!$)$&(!
%! !?2@3
oPolar wandering
7'!$!''
!
7'!(.&(%%
o7'!(&$-!)(!#$$( 
$ $!'&('& $!
oPaleomagnetism!#$%& ('& $!
Recent Evidence for Continental Drift
& $-(!)//5!$ !2?6
#( $& 3
-!! ( %+!##+&!!!+'+6
 !!5&!$ '"
%!!
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Sea floor( ')(. '- $ &
Sea floor spreading!&(.!/%&(( $5
$'!!#&(.
Subduction!$ '&!&) !$
Convection ! #$ .)% ! '&
( $! - '&$(
( !./$! %! !!
$( !. '$! %!! -!
$! .!( !$#$)%!&(. '$//$
('!#)$#06!)/
(. '!5&-$!%-#!!!.!
$.,#-!6
;($$'&  !$
How old is the sea floor?
A#'!&!) '&($)%)!#!
$'!
9!! $! $/%!)%.$!
!#)$#$ (
$!&!) '$!%$$/!& !) '
&($
!$/$%(."
  &$&!$ ';($
%
Plate !'+()!)&- !&*!!#&
7$#&!&+ -
Lithosphere ' $#!& #$!-!&(
#!$#(!(
  !! -
27==3
Asthenosphere)/ !+/ !0&/5! !( 5
/.. %).!!%)#!&!$
(#$!!#
/!!(.
9/ !!(-
!($#&!&!#)$#$$/(&( '
!
$ '$'($#& -!#)$#)#!
 -!!!$!-
%!&)#$ !4
<6Divergent plate boundary )#$%(. '
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