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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8 N Every 5 seconds, somewhere in the world, a child starves to death Food security: the guarantee of an adequate, reliable, and available food supply to people at all times N Increased food production o devoting more energy (fossil fuels) to agriculture o planting and harvesting more frequently o increased use of irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides o increasing the amount of cultivated land o developing (through crossbreeding and genetic engineering) more productive croplivestock varieties undernourishment: people who receive less than 90% of their daily caloric needs (mainly in developing) N economic, 15 of worlds people live on > $1 a day, more than half live on > $2 a day overnutrition: receiving too many calories each day (mainly in developed) Five As: Availability, Affordability, Accessibility, Acceptability, Adequacy Malnutrition: shortage of nutrients the body needs (vitamins and minerals) can lead to disease Green Revolution: methods and technologies to increase crop output per unit area of cultivated land N extensification (more land) to intesnsification (more productivity from unit of land) N Norman Borlaug specially bred type of wheat Industrialized agriculture: applying synthetic fertilizers, chemical pesticides, irrigation, using heavy equipment N Beneficial for biodiversity and natural ecosystems negative impacts on environment o Monocultures made planting and harvesting efficient o reduced biodiversity; susceptible to viral diseases, fungal pathogens or insect pests o narrowing human diet
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