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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 19 Time and Geology Introduction Relative time unraveling the sequence in which geologic events occurred. For example finding out that the glacial sediments found near the ground surface are younger than the layered sedimentary rock they cover. Radioactive isotope dating determining how many years ago rocks formed. For example, finding out that rocks forming the North America craton range in age between 4 billion years and 1 billion years old What is uniformitarianism? Until the 1800 Western culture - believed that the Earth is only a few thousand years old ChineseHindu believed the age of the Earth was beyond comprehension (like what is determined today) Christian formation of all rocks and other geologic events were placed into a biblical chronology o Fossils found today were believed to be from Noahs flood James Hutton 18 century The father of modern geology He realized that geologic features could be explained through present- day processes o Saw that our mountains are not permanent but rather are carved into its present shape and will be eroded o Noticed that the earth must be older than 6,000 years old for sediments and mountains to be eroded and thicken o We fin no sign of a beginning no prospect for an end Charles Lyell Principles of geology book Lyell referred to Huttons concept that geologic processes operating at present are the same processes that operated in the past as the principle of uniformitarianism. Uniformitarianism - The present is the key to the past James Hutton & Charles Lyell recognized that landscapes had evolved over many millions of years by the processes that we will see operating today
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