Study Guide For EESA05, Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 8: Severe Weather tornado: violently rotating column of air carrying extreme winds worst tornado: longer contact with ground; larger width; straight path; fast speed 8.1 Energy E=mv /2 energy of the moving body= mass (velocity) / 2 2 Force: experience it when we push or pull an object; strength or magnitude of force can be measured by how much the force accelerates the motion of the box or car o F=ma force=mass of moving body x acceleration or change in velocity of the object per unit time Newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg mass 1 m/s each sec that it is in motion Work is done when energy is expended; work is the energy expended in applying a force to move an object a specific distance o Work= f x distance over which it is applied measured in joules, defined as a force of 1 N applied over a distance of 1 m Rate at which work is done is powerenergy divided by time expressed as j/s or watts Atmospheric processes involve huge amts of energy and power expressed in terawatts (tW) o 1 tW=1 trillion W=1 million MG (megawatts) Types of Energy potential energy is stored energy kinetic energy: energy of motion o a book on a shelf contains potential energy based on its height above the ground. If it falls from the shelf to the ground, it loses potential energy and gains kinetic energy heat energy: energy of random motion of atoms and molecules that can be defined as the kinetic energy of atoms or molecules within a substance heat can also be thought of as energy transferred from one body to another because of the temperature difference b/w the two bodies two types of heat that are imp in atmospheric processes are sensible heat and latent heat sensible heat is heat that can be sensed or measured by a thermometer latent heat is heat that is either absorbed or released when a substance changes phase; in atmosphere related to 3 phases of water o energy released from transformation of liquid water to water vapor is latent heat of vaporization Heat Transfer 3 processes of atmospheric heat: conduction, convection and radiation conduction is the transfer of heat thru a substance by means of atomic or molecular interactions. Requires a difference in temp within the substance; heat will move from an area of greater temp to one of less temp convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid; convection cell is circulation loop; convection imp in transferring heat in thunderstorms radiation is wave-like energy emitted by a substance that possess heat; transfer of energy by radiation occurs by oscillations in electric and magnetic fields; thus the waves are called electromagnetic waves 8.2 Earths energy balance energy that reaches the earth from the sun affects the atm, ocean, land, and living things before being radiated back into space earths energy balance is the eqm b/w incoming and outgoing energy energy changes form repeatedly and in a complex manner from the time it reaches Earth to the time it leaves, but it is neither created nor destroyed earth intercepts only a tiny fraction of the total energy emitted by the sun, but the intercepted energy is adequate to sustain life solar energy also drives the hydrologic cycle, ocean waves and currents and global atmospheric circulation geothermal heat, derived from the interior of the planet, accts for only a fraction of 1 % of earths total energy budge, although it is this internal heat that moves earths litospheric plates which in turn generates EQ and volcanic eruptions Electromagnetic energy much of the energy emitted by the sun is EM energy it has a wave form and travels thru space at or near the speed of light wavelength: distance b/w the crests and troughs of two successive waves various types of EM radiation are distinguished by their WL and the collection of all possible WL is called EM spectrum EM waves with long WL include radio waves and microwaves Waves with short WL of less than 0.01 um are x-rays and gamma rays IR radiation imp for maintaining temperatures in earths atm that allow the planet to support life Levels of UV radiation at earths surface influenced by planets magnetic field and by ozone in the upper atm Radiation, Absorption and Temperature radiation and absorption of EM energy are affected by temperature and reflectivity objects temp influence the amt and type of EM radiation it emits o hot objects emit more EM energy than cool objects amt of energy radiated from an object each second is proportional to the 4 power of the objects surface absolute temp (Kelvins) o if surface temperature of the object doubles, the radiated energy increases 16 times objects temperature also affects the WL of the EM radiation it emits o hot objects radiate energy more rapidly and at shorter WL than do cool objects absorption of energy is similarly affected by surface temperature o cold object on earths surface will initially absorb a large amt of incoming s
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