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Chapter 3

HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Hematuria, Trematode Life Cycle Stages, Granuloma

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 3: Six Plagues of Antiquity
-After human populations was settled down and adopted agricultural life – conditions
favoured the emergence of diseases
-Agricultural revolution was the driving force behind the growth of cities (urbanization)
-Urban life enhanced the transmission of certain disease through the air and water
-Diseases of antiquity characterized by parasites with long-lived transmission stages
oInvolving person-to-person contact
-Most diseases established when small number of infectious individuals could be
The Pharaohs’ Plague – A look back
- A disease that cause blood to appear in the urine (hematuria)
-Hematuria was described by the father of Arabian medicine – Avicenna
-The Condition called AAA was recognized much earlier
oMentioned in the papyrus dated 1500 BC
oRemedies are also mentioned
oIn the tombs, there are figures of people with enlarged abdomens representing
chronic snail fever or blood fluke disease
Search for the destroyer
-Blood fluke disease – known as snail fever or endemic hematuria
oInvolves feces or urine, water, snails and a flatworm
-First Europeans to experience – soldiers of Napoleons army during invasion of Egypt

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- Symptom of the disease – bloody urine
-Route of infection – seems like only bathing in infested water, not ingestion
-Life cycle of snail fever:
oThey reach fresh water, discharged eggs release a swimming larva (the
oMiracidia are short lived – but if they encounter a suitable snail they penetrate the
soft tissues, migrate to the liver and change in form for 6-7 weeks by asexual
oNumbers of parasites increase
oDuring this time – snail sheds thousands and can develop into adult worms
Snail Fever, the disease
-Adult worms at 10 mm in length
-Sexes are separate – males have groove running lengthwise
-Both males/females have two suckers at the head and end of the worm
-Live in blood vessels (veins) close to the bladder and small intestine
-Mating occurs in the gynecophoric canal – females deposit fertilized eggs in smaller veins
-Each day, hundreds of embryo-contained eggs move towards the bladder or intestine
-Eggs become enclosed in a small tumor called granuloma
-More then 2/3rds of eggs fail to work their way out of body and washed back in veins
-The other freed and eliminated with urine or feces
-Eggs pile up, block normal flow and leads to tissue death
-Earliest signs of infection occur within 1-2 months
oFever, chills, sweating, headache and cough
-6 months- a year later the accumulation of eggs produces organ enlargement
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