Health, Illness, and Optimal Aging- Biological and Psychological Perspectives
-Neighbours were helpful in socialization and “tension reduction”
-Men only trust and find their wives their main confidants
-Women can socially interact and share with best friends and family
-There is a difference between different ethnic backgrounds and the ways they take care of
-African American provided higher-intensity of care
-The quasi-formal support system includes community organizations and service workers.
-These are religious organizations, neighborhoods, and volunteer community interest
groups such as Lions clubs and Masons.
-The quasi-formal support system provides unpaid services to older persons, often as a
voluntary link between individuals or families and communities, providing information,
helping with transportation, or doing home repairs.
-These quasi-formal groups serve as watchdogs for the older person, noting when mail is
not picked up or a customary shopping trip missed.
-Places of worship are an important source of quasi-formal support. Synagogues,
churches, temples, and mosques provide emotional support for their members, through
spiritual connections and a sense of community.
-The formal support system consists of members of professional organizations who are
hired to provide care to the individual.
-These can be either private or public organizations.
-Examples of agencies that provide formal help are adult day health centers, health
clinics, respite facilities, home health care agencies, skilled nursing homes, social
services agencies, assisted-living facilities, and public health departments.
-Formal support network members give a wide spectrum of care, most of it
instrumental in nature.
-Hard for most people to live in a skilled nursing facility (SNF)
Interface of Formal and Informal Support
-It was found that informal caregivers provided the majority of care to their older relatives,
even when formal support was available.
-Recent studies substantiate that the use of formal support has minimal impact on the
amount of care given by the informal system.
-Addition of formal in-home support (e.g., personal care and bathing) to older adults with
chronic illnesses was not found to be associated with less informal care or self-care.
Families continue to provide care for their family members, even with outside help.