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2 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Rhan- Ju Song

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October 2012 Measles  Measles (rubeola, hard measles, red measles, 9 day measles, morbilli) is a common , acute, viral infectious disease, principally of children with worldwide distribution, that is clinically characterized by fever and a typical red, blotchy rash combined with a cough  It is a vaccine preventable disease, and its vaccine is one of the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) of the World Health Organization (WHO) Etiology and Epidemiology  Measles is caused by a virus, which is in the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae  It can survive drying in micro droplets in the air  It is transmitted by contact of susceptible individuals with the nose and throat secretions of infected persons  Infection also occurs through direct contact, and by indirect contact through freshly soiled articles and airborne transmission  There is no reservoirs for measles other than human beings, which means that a continuous chain of susceptible contacts is necessary to sustain transmission  Measles has an incubation period from time of exposure to onset of fever of about 10 days with a range from 8- 13 days  Measles is primarily an epidemic disease of children, with epidemics occurring every 2 to 5 years  Epidemic measles has a winter- spring seasonality in temperate climates and a less marked-hot-dry seasonality in equilateral regions  Difference in severity among certain populations are most likely the result of nutritional and environmental factors  Measles mortality is highest in the very young and the very old Distribution and Incidence  Measles has a worldwide distribution, and the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization maintains an information system on reported cases and vaccination coverage in member countries  In populated areas where measles is both endemic and epidemic, over 90 percent of the adult population will show serologic evidence of prior infection  In remote populations where measles is not endemic, a significant proportion of the population can be susceptible, which may produce large outbreaks when the measles virus is introduced from the outside Immunology  Infants usually have passive immunity to measles as a result of maternal antibodies they get from their mothers  The passive immunity protects the infant from measles for 6-9 months, depending on the amount of maternal antibody required  Measles infection induces a lifelong immunity  The optimal age of vaccination is related to the persistence of passive immunity from maternal antibodies and patterns of disease transmission 1 October 2012 Clinical Manifestations and Pathology  The prodromal phase of measles disease
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