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Health Studies
Denis Maxwell

HLTC02 WINTER 2013 Week #3: Putting Gender into Health and Globalization Debates – Lesley Doyal Globalization & Health – Can We Construct a Balance Sheet?  There is a broad consensus that the following trends constitute globalization o Anthony Giddens: intensification of worldwide social relations and increasing global interdependence o David Harvey: compression of space and time through the development of new technologies o In conclusion, economic, financial, technical and culturalinterchanges between different countries is happening at rapidly increasing paces and in ways that are transforming the lives of individuals and communities across the world  Some have tried to construct a balance sheet on globalization o Economic globalization has improved health through raising the incomes of poor people (Dollar, 2001) o Others disagree and argue that the benefits accrued by globalization have been confined to a small number of countries (Cornia, 2001)  Serious methodological challenges to developing an understanding of the impact on globalization on health o Complex processes of societal transformations are happening all around the world in different places and times and it is hard to keep track of that all and make broad statements o People are stratified due to race, class, gender, age, geopolitical status and therefore these subdivision within this groups will be differentially affected o Necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach in order to capture the rich diversity in information, influence, causes and effects Globalization and Health: A Framework for Analysis  Four main dimensions/processes of globalization o Changes in distribution of income and poverty o Globalization of production o Liberalization of trade o Reshaping or hollowing out of nation states  Global restructuring has had positive effects on poverty in some parts of the world because the promotion of economic growth and opening up of trade has increased income levels  However, increased inequalities have also been seen as it deepens the divide between the rich and poor, the haves and the have notes, increased inequities between and within communities/populations  There is an increasing power of TNCs and accompanying growth of transport and communication have led to globalization of production (goods made HLTC02 WINTER 2013 where it is cheapest at the cost of health and wellbeing of the labour force there) o Increased employment or loss of employment o Travel for work, work migration to urban centres o Exposure to new health risks in toxic work environments o Environmental degradation o Industrial pollution o Deregulation of industry in the pursuit of foreign investment but at the cost of workers and environment  WTO/IMF have encourage the liberalization of trade and that has meant treaties and agreements to lower tariffs o Increased harmful goods in the hands of more markets o Structural adjustment programs have promoted small governments and hence small social sector safety net o Struggle and obligation to service massive debts over providing for nation’s citizens  Hollowing out of states = small governments, lack of health care provision and other services Linking Globalization with Women’s Health: Mapping the Hazards  Problems with current globalization discourses o Predominantly male focused o Focus on public arena and completely forgetting to lay analysis to the women’s arena of the household and family o Gender-disaggregated date is quite limited  Key Themes: Gender division of labour, gender relations in the household and interactions between nationality, race, gender in shaping identity (intersectionality)  Biological differences impact the influence of globalization on males and females differently  Women’s capacity for reproduction makes her vulnerable to wider range of health problems if she is unable to control her own fertility and to go through pregnancy and child birth safely  Social differences are also important as they ascribe different social roles for men and women as well as different entitlements to social and economic resources  Men and women living in the same household have different risks and have differential access to health and health care Poverty and insecurity: the female experience HLTC02 WINTER 2013  In some parts of the world, women are more likely to be poorer than men, individuals experience poverty in highly gendered ways that have both direct and indirect implications for their health  Gender disaggregated data on poverty are extremely sparse  Poor
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