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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Chapter 1 Introduction - According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. - This definition is much cites but rarely followed by international health actors, which typically frame international health in terms of disease control - Emerging consensus that addressing the social determinants of health is essential to ensuring the highest attainable state of health and well-being - These determinants include adequate housing, access to clean water, sanitation, nutrition, education, broad social policies and protections, safe working conditions, and living wages - Public health: is a concept that was coined in the 19 century to distinguish government efforts for the preservation and protection of health from private actions - U.S. public health leader C.-E.A. Winslow defined public health as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health - Population health: proposes that individual determinants of health do not ac
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