On the folly of rewarding a, while hoping for b (kerr): Rewarding a, while hoping for b occurs depending on perceived attractiveness of rewards offered. Politics: official goals purposely vague and general, do not indicate host of decisions that must be made among alternative ways of achieving official goals and priority of multiple goals. High acceptance, low quality goals relied on to offend no one. Ex: all americans are entitled to health care: operative goals higher in quality, lower in acceptance. Specify where the $ will come from, and what alternative goals will be ignored: american elections. Wants candidates for public office to set operative goals making proposed programs clear and specifying sources & uses of funds. Most candidates need acceptance prefer to speak only of official goals (until after the election) O(cid:374)l(cid:455) speak at operati(cid:448)e le(cid:448)el if (cid:862)pu(cid:374)ished(cid:863) for (cid:374)ot doi(cid:374)g so refusing to support candidates who do not speak at the operative level.