VPMB82 Chapter 22

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Music and Culture
Ken Mc Leod

Chapter 22 The European mainstream in the Early Twentieth CenturyPreludeCommon challenges modern composers in classical tradition includedcomposing work of in high quality that participated in tradition of serious art musicexhibiting a distinctive musical personalityoffering unique style that balanced traditionnovel elementsnationalist traditionmusic diverges from common practice tonal languageatonalposttonal practicemusic became increasingly diverse in styleapproachThe First Modern GenerationMahlerStrauss extended Wagnerian harmony to new levels of rhetorical intensityDebussy is the premier modernist in Francecombination of nationalismmodernismClaude Debussystudied at the Conservatoire in Paris at the age of teenfirst piano then compositionNadezhda von Meck was his patron in the early 1880swon Prix de Rome in 1884famous work included piano music Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faunopera Pelleas et Melisandeorchestral work included La MerImagescomposed Etudes and three chamber sonatastook harmony toward rhetorical understatementdrew from French tradition a preference for indirectrestrained expressionfound new ideas in Russian composers including Balakirev RimskyKorsakovMusorgskymedieval music parallel organuummusic from AsiaJavanese gamelan in Paris Worlds Fairimpressionist share qualities with Symbolist poetsevoke mood through suggestion connotationindirectionnormal syntax in music is often disruptedattention is placed in individual images that carry works structure and meaningcreate musical images through motives harmony exotic scales wholetone octatonic pentatonic scales instrumental timbremotives do not develop may repeat with small changesdissonances need not resolvesonorities move in parallel motionchromatic and whole tone chord
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