Chapter 3 Study Guide

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Music and Culture
Ken Mc Leod

Chapter 3 Baroque music -vocal recitative flexible, speech-like rhythms -toccata and prelude improvisatory solo instrumental piece -dance regular rhythm -bar line became common in Baroque indicate recurring pattern of strong and weak beats -active bass lines propulsive harmonic motion Homophonic -firm bass, florid treble -held together by unobtrusive harmonies -contrast between bass and treble -emphasize two essential lines (treble and bass) of the texture -subordinate inner parts Thorough bass or basso continuo (accompaniment) -composer wrote only melody and bass, leaving it to performers to fill in the appropriate chords or inner parts -bass and chords were played on continuo instrument -harpsichord, organ, lute, theorbo were used at first -viola da gamba, cello, bassoon to sustain notes were used later Figured bass -added figures (flat or sharp) above or below the bass note to indicate the precise pitches required Concertato -combined voices with instruments -assign different roles to each instrument and voice Chromaticism -express intense emotion -suggest harmonic exploration -create distinctive subjects for treatment in imitative counterpoint Tonality -standard cadential progression -bass movement by a fourth or fifth -conventional bass patterns -use of suspension and other dissonances to create forward motion Opera -drama sung to continuous music -staged with scenery, costumes and action
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