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Rutsuko Ito

Pavlovian conditioning 1. AKA classical conditioning 2. Dog salivates in absence of food (but in the presence of the assistant who brings the food) 3. Unconditional stimulus  food in mouth 4. Unconditional response  unlearned reflex reaction (salivation) to US 5. Association of neutral stimulus (bell) that orients attentions towards source of stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus resulted in the bell becoming a conditioned stimulus in predicting the unconditional response (now known as conditioned response) 6. Therefore pavlovian conditioning is a form of associative learning by which the US is paired with CS in order to evoke a conditional response Demonstration of pavlovian conditioning (RAYER study) 1. Little Albert 2. Initially no fear of white lab rat 3. However, when he reached for the rat, a pipe was banged with a hammer  resulting in loud unpleasant noise (US) 4. US  fear response (UR) 5. Rat (CS) associated with US  resulting in fear response (CR) 6. Fear of rat also generalized to other white furry things Properties of classical conditioning 1. Acquisition a. Repeated pairings of CS-US 2. Extinction a. Presentation of CS alone 3. Spontaneous recovery a. Recovery of CS after extinction of CS 4. Stimulus generalization a. CR will be similar in CS that share similar properties 5. Stimulus discrimination a. Discriminating between two CS Biological significance of pavlovian conditioning 1. Adaptive significance a. Preparing an animal’s response to an impending / significant event i. Signals for food 1. Salivation response to prepare the medium for breaking down and digesting food 2. Also allows animals to identify and avoid foods that may be poisonous a. E.g. in taste aversion learning  learning to reject a flavor (CS) that is associated with gastric illness (US) ii. Fear signals 1. Prepare for a dangerous encounter through a set of physiological responses through the nervous system a. E.g. rats and freezing response to electric shock i. Predators often respond to movement iii. Reproductive significance 1. ZAMBLE study a. Male rat exposure to female with access prevented (US) b. Placement in plastic chamber (CS)  leading to subsequent access to female c. Ejaculation latency shorter when US paired with CS i. i.e. pairing of CS with US resulted in preparation response in sexual physiological response 2. TODRANKS study a. Opposite sex pictures (CS) b. Related odors (US) i. Soaps ii. Shampoos iii. Sweaty iv. Musty c. Pictures of opposite paired with disliked odors were rated as less attractive after conditioning i. Vice versa with liked odors ii. Relative to neutral and non-odor conditions (SHAM / control condition) 3. HOLLIS study (1997) a. 10s light (CS)  signaled the appearance of an egg-bearing female (behind a glass screen) b. Courtship displays (CR) when light (CS) was turned on c. CS followed by access to female (glass screen removed) resulted in more courtship and copulation displays i. Also produced better offspring iv. Territorial defense 1. HOLLIS study (1984) a. Exposing male gourami to red light stimulus (CS) b. Followed by presentation of a male rival (US) behind a glass barrier c. Association formation resulted in aggressive displays in male gourami upon presentation of red light by itself d. Territorial defense test  conditioned male presented more displays of aggression compared to unconditioned male What is learned in pavlovian conditioning? Excitatory and inhibitory conditioning 1. Excitatory conditioning a. CS signals the occurrence of a US or reinforcer b. Not necessarily ‘excited’ behavior i. E.g. CR being the inhibition of behavior (suppression of feeding / freezing) is still excitatory conditioning c. Can occur with US that is either appetitive or aversive d. Test for excitatory conditioning i. CS is excitatory if it responds as if it expects a US 2. Inhibitory conditioning a. CS signals the absence of a US b. Pairing of metronome (CS2) with light (CS1) signals for absence of food (CR) i. CS1 alone signals presence of food (excitatory) ii. CS2 + CS1 signals absence of food (inhibitory) c. Tests for inhibitory conditioning i. Summation 1. Present CS2 with CS1 a. If responding is reduced by CS2  it is an inhibitor b. The SUM of responding to CS2 + CS1 is less than CS1 alone ii. Retardation 1. CS2 trained as an excitor 2. If it has inhibitory (negative) strength  acquisition of the CR will be retarded in comparison to animals for which CS2 is a novel / neutral stimulus S-S vs S-R associations 1. S-S learning a. CS activates a neural and behavioral representation of the US in its absence 2. S-R learning a. Advocated for by Skinner and Hull b. Associations made directly between CS and the UR i. i.e. US no longer necessary to predict the UR Testing for S-S vs S-R learning US revaluation 1. Animals trained on CS-US association a. HOLLAND and STRAUB study i. Stage 1 1. Rats formed association between tone (CS) and food (US) ii. Stage 2 1. US devalued by being paired with aversive stimuli (LiCl) iii. Test 1. Re-exposure to CS  rats made less approach to CS a. Supports the SS learning theory 2. Value of US is devalued a. SR learning  no effect b. SS learning  less approach behavior Sensory preconditioning 1. Two neutral stimuli are paired before association is being made with the unconditioned stimulus a. Stage 1 i. Tone (CS1) + Light (CS2) b. Stage 2 i. Shock (US) + Tone (CS1) 1. Tone becomes an aversive (excitatory) stimulus in predicting shock c. Test i. Light (CS2)  Fear Response (UR) 2. Evidence of S-S learning theory Second order conditioning 1. RIZLEY and RESCORLA study a. Two experimental groups i. Group 1 1. First order conditioning a. Tone (CS1) + Shock (US) 2. Second order conditioning a. Light (CS2) + Tone (CS1) 3. Extinction phase a. Tone (CS1) presented alone 4. Test a. Light (CS2)  Freezing (Fear Response) 5. Evidence of SR learning theory a. If it were SS learning  light presentation should not evoke fear
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