POLB80 Chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Sheldon Ungar

CHAPTER 6: LIBERALISM th By Baylis 5 edition INTRODUCTION Pg. 102 – realism regarded as the dominant theory of international relations - Liberalism has a strong claim to being the historic alternative - In 1990s, liberalism appeared in Western state leaders proclaiming a new world order - Stanley Hoffmann’s ‘international affairs have been the nemesis of liberalism... the essence of liberalism is self-restraint, moderation, compromise and peace whereas the essence of international politics is exactly the opposite; trouble peace, at best, or the state of war’ - Power politics is the product of ideas and ideas can change - All citizens are equal, possess certain basic rights to education, access to free press, religious toleration - The right to own property - Most effective system of economic exchange is market driven - Sacrifice liberty of individual for the stability of the community - The identity of the state determines its outward orientation - All states are accorded to natural rights ‘right to non-intervention in domestic affairs’ - Both realist and liberals – war is a recurring feature of the anarchic system - Don’t define anarchy as cause of war - Cause of war in imperialism, failure of balance of power, undemocratic regimes Pg. 103 – 2 liberal direction: commitment to freedom in economic and social sphere  minimalist role for governing institutions, democratic political culture for basic freedom requires interventionist institutions - The intensification of global flows in trade, resources, people has weakened state’s capacity to govern CORE IDEAS IN LIBERAL THINKING ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Pg. 104 – Kant, to achieve perpetual peace required transformation of consciousness, republican constitutionalism, federal contract between states  If decisions to use force taken by people, conflict will be reduced “democratic peace treaty’ - Liberal states tend to be wealthy, less to gain by engaging in conflicts - 1989 Fukuyama’s ‘The End of History’ – triumph of liberalism over all other ideologies Pg. 105 – many US presidents say liberal tradition believes a legal and institutional framework must be established that includes states with different cultures and traditions - Cobden’s belief that free trade would create more peaceful world order - Peace not a natural condition but can be constructed - Wilson – peace could be secured by international organizations - Collective security – an arrangement where ‘each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, agrees to join in a collective response to aggression P. 106- self-determination – characteristic of liberal idealist thinking of IR - 1936 Hitler’s decision to reoccupy Rhineland which is demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles - Need of new international institution with international peace and security - Veto system allowed any 5 permanent member of Security Council the power of veto - Military – transnational cooperation required in order to
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