Chapter 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

Chapter 4: From the Cold War to The World Economic Crisis INTRODUCTION Pg. 68 – the economic crisis that tore through the world’s financial system in 2009 leaving long-term problems THE END OF THE COLD WAR - Ending WW1 (1919), WW2 (1945), cold war (1989) - Cold war – international order was left between 2 super orders - USSR socialist, US capitalist - Bipolar system after 1947 - USSR and US never directly engaged in armed hostilities THE USA IN A WORLD WITHOUT BALANCE Pg. 69 – globalization – a notion that had barely been used before 1989, communism’s collapse, opened closed planned economies  Unipolar system in the end - The new world order which the US had privileged position ‘hyperpower’ Pg. 70 – some say other great powers would in time emerge to balance the US - Some say countries enjoy special advantage in every sphere, US hegemony would last into 21 st century - US remained a superpower without a mission EUROPE: A WORK IN PROGRESS - Europe concern – managing the new enlarged space that had been created as a result of the events in 1989. They were the real beneficiaries of what happened - States of Eastern Europe had the right of self-determination Pg. 71 – European Security and Defence Policy in 1998, European Security Strategy - The Lisbon Treaty (late 2009) advocated the creation of new posts that would glue the EU more voice RUSSIA: FROM YELTSIN TO PUTIN AND MEDVEDEV Pg. 72 – Russia a declining power with diminishing economic ideological assets - Developed Western-style privatization, 1930 style depression - Yeltsin trying o turn Russia into Western dependency and not standing up for Russia’s national interest - Putin new president – ensure Russian economy served purpose of state  Independent parliament, free media hollowed out - Russia part of UN Security Council permanently, important to work with Russia for economic purpose - Putin’s policies damage Russia’s relationship with West Pg. 73 – no longer hope for Russia to become a ‘strategic partner’ engaged in liberal democracy - Economic reform made it dependent on Western markets - Russia lost 3 Baltic republics to West in 1980s, determined it doesn’t lose Ukraine or Georgia - 2008 – Russia and Georgia went to war with each other - Russia had military superiority and won but the West began a long competition between democratic West and authoritarian Russia - Obama assumed office in 2009 tried to fix US-Russian relationship but didn’t EAST ASIA: PRIMED FOR RIVALRY? - Europe managed to form new liberal security community during cold war, East Asia didn’t Pg. 74 – powerful communist parties continue
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