Chapter 7.docx

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Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

Chapter 7: CONTENPORARY MAINSTREAM APPROACHES: NEO-REALISM AND NEO-LIBERALISM INTRODUCTION p. 116 – Neo-realism and neo-liberalism are the progeny of realism and liberalism respectively - neo-realism refers to Kenneth Waltz’s Theory of International Politics  importance of structure of international system and its role as the primary of state behaviour - neo-liberalism refers to neo-liberal institutionalism/ institutional theory by those writing in this theoretical domain - most Western states joined US-led chorus to enlarge the community of democratic and capitalist nation-state - National interest take precedence over morality and universal ideals - Economic interest are given priority over geopolitical ones - Robert Keohane – neo-liberalism institutionalist borrows equally from realism and liberalism - Neo-realist theory focuses on issues of military security and war - Neo-liberalism theorists focus on issues of cooperation, international political economy and the environment  How to promote/support cooperation in anarchic and competitive international system - Neo-realist- how to survive in this system NEO-REALISM p. 117 – Waltz’s theory of structural realism only one version of neo-realism nd - 2 modern realist profile - 3 security studies STRUCTURAL REALISM - Realism is primarily an inductive theory - Structure – the ordering principle of international system, which is anarchy and distribution of capabilities across units which are states - India and Pakistan’s nuclear testing would be anarchy or lack common power or central authority to enforce rules and maintain order - Realist-power an end in itself - Many states leaders believe they can resolve their difference by force - Power gives states a place or position in international system Pg. 118 – states will seek to maintain position or placement in the system - Waltz – central mechanism for order in the system is balance of power - Neo-realist – all states experience same constraints presented by anarchy and strive to maintain their position in the system - Realist – states react to condition according to size, location, politics, leadership qualities Pg. 119 – Belgium, China’s constraints of anarchy in need for security to protect national interest - Belgium – small, limited resources so join alliance - China – major power, pursue a unilateral strategy of increase military RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE GAIN - Grieco – states interested in increasing power and influence so they cooperate with other states (absolute gains)  States concerned on how much power and influence other states have or gain (relative gains) - Neo-liberals – states fail to follow rules and cheat won’t have cooperation - Neo-realism – 2 barriers to cooperation: cheating and relative gains SECURITY STUDIES AND NEO-REALISM - John Mearsheimer – suggest relative power not absolute important to states (offensive realist) - Bush stopped the threat by telling World about Iraq weapons  War unnecessary cause containment of Iraq working and no strategic rationale for this war  Cost of war outweighs benefits - Defensive neo-realist – conflict unnecessary  Leaders never certain that an aggressive by a state is an expansionary action  Easy to find national interest might converge and become basis of cooperation and institution building - Defensive neo-realist concerned about cheating NEO-LIBERALISM p. 121 – David Baldwin – 4 varieties of liberalism that influence contemporary international relations: commercial, republican, sociology, liberal institutionalism - commercial liberalism – free trade, market and capitalist economy to peace - Neo-liberal orthodoxy – free trade, private property rights, free market lead to richer world - Republican liberalism – democratic states less likely to go to war, inclined to citizens right - Sociological liberalism – notion of community and the process of interdependence - Neo-liberal institution believe states have mutual interest THE NEO-NEO DEBATE - Neo-realist and neo-liberals share an epistemology – focus on similar questions and agree on some assumptions - Institutional theory a
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