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Political Science
Genevieve Dewar

September 25 2012: Chapter 4 Imperialism:  In many areas, imperialism took the form of colonalization by white settler families who displaced the local people, often violently  Modernizationists does not pay much attention to imperialism o They implied that conviction that third world societies are “traditional”  Marxists see imperialism as critical to understanding of the third world and its poverty o They see imperialism as having shattered old class structures  Imperialism created the national boundaries of most third world countries o Created national languages o The imperialists brought with them public health measures that lowered morality and caused the unprecedented population explosion in the third world  A good date for European Imperialism would be the year of 1492, Columbus set out his first voyage of discovery  History of European imperialism falls under 3 periods: o 1492-1776 global expansion  The development of ship building led to travel and breaking of isolation  Spanish forced the native Americans into bondage both in agriculture and in the mines  Portuguese opened the sea route to india  Americans brought black people from Africa to work o 1776-1870  british dominacnce and the withdrawal of other imperialists  The british withdrew from the centre stage after 1812 because trading was being able to prosper without the british government control over it. ‘free trade’ helped withdrew control of the trading by british, thus loosening their control over the colonies  The economic contro of latin America changed as their economy was structured increasingly to produce primary product exports for the british market such as beef, sugar, coffe, gold and silver.  The Monroe doctrine 1823 excluded europen colonies from power in America except for the british o 1870 – 1914  “new imperialism”  The resurge of European imperialism was known as “new imperialism”  It included Britain, French, Belgian, germans, Italians, Portuguese, Americans, and Japanese.  Most dramatic event of the new imperialism was the scramble for Africa  Importance of empire in world history: o Normal way of which political power is exercised o Sovereign, independence, etc  Native Language of the country that is being colonized by the imperialist is changed and affected.  Control over language leads to the loss of the actual meaning within that language. Translation can never be accurate  Christiantiy was used by imperialistics. o Most powerful tool of culture o Brought an aura of superiority and the sense of mission o Christianity provided a moral cloak that could mask the destruction wrought by the imperialists. Eg. Massacres  Why is Ghandi so important? o Story of Ghandi is a particularly apt one for illustrating the interconnectedness of the world o Ghandi learned English doctrine and helped out his fellow men of india by using that of what he learned  Why do the Khomeini and Khmer Rouge movements stand out? o They followed their own doctrine and refused the European doctrine.  Imperialists were capitalists  The essence of capitalism is alienation o The factors of production – land, labour, and capital – are treated in a capitalist system as commodities to be bought or sold  they are not part of a person’s birth right o Colonies were turned into a vast production system for sugar, cacao, tobacco, wheat, cotton, meat, fish, juice, coffee, coconuts, rubber, wool, palm oil, rice, bananas, ground nuts,etc o Imperialism produced world of economic specialization  Manufacturing in the core of Europe, and agriculture in the third world countries  Canada developed a technologically advanced, productive modern economy  Why did death rates fall in the twentieth century? What happened to birth rates and standards of living? o Imperialists imported cheap public health technology, including the spraying of malarial swamps with insecticides, the use of vaccines, and antibiotics. o Birth rates reduced because small families were easier to maintain o Standard of livings such as health conditions, death rates lowered, etc, because of economic growth  The world Saw third world children as material and spiritual assets (the more the better) o Children could be put to work to increase family income o They could provide security for their parents when old age Chapter 5 Nationalism and independence:  Nationalism for the third world countries represented resistance to outside rulers, pride in ones own identity, and a program for political self-determination  Imperialism severely damaged, distorted, even destroyed the social structures it encountered o After imperialists retreated from societies, it could never become traditional again.  Imperialism forced third world into the dominant world system, a system of nations  It is important to distinguish the nationalist program in the third world from the revolutionary program o Nationalism occurred almost everywhere, but revolution only in pockets o The distinction is that the nationalists sought political rights for all the colonized people o Strength of nationalism was that it was an ideology capable of uniting an oppressed people, of drawing them together in opposition to their common enemy, the imperialist oppressor o If national unity was the strength of the nationalist program, it was also its weakness  Nationalist movements in third world countries focused on the struggle against the common enemy, but most were unwilling to deal with the ways in which oppression was exercised with the nation  This would tear apart the unity that was the movements strength, so in most cases it was avoided  Marx thought that nationalism was a particular manifestation of capitalism o Nationalist identity, they thought, was foste
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