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Chapter 2

PSYA01H3 Chapter 2: Scientific Studies & Experiments

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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My guy, listen to the songs
They will prompt memory/encompass what you are learning tbh
First challenge that any scientist faces is what question do they want to answer
Joorden’s Question: How do we create educational tech that positively influences learning
Jane Goodale
Hung out with a bunch of chimpanzees
Did this when we knew like nothing about them
Was asked to go and live with them to learn about them
Her mom came with her
She white
Observational Research- was watching subject of interest very closely and asking questions
There was a specific way they reacted when they met
One would look in the eye and one would look down
In a given pari, it was mostly the same
Some would look in the eye but look down for others
A possible hierarchy
Occasionally, the positions would change
The weaker chimp would look right back
Either the original higher one would look down, or there would be a fight
Things start in observational research
Got her ass kicked by the chimpanzees
Was submissive to all chimps
Smelled different and they knew where she was
Naturalistic observation-
observe and record behaviour as it occurs in the
subject’s natural environment
Those being observed shouldn’t know
Qualitative research-involves examining an issue or behaviour without performing numerical
measurements of variables
Quantitative research-examines an issue or behaviour by using numerical measurements
and/or statistics
Case Study- in depth report about the details of a specific case
Performed on individuals who have either seen shit or are mad weird
Case studies can be used to test an existing hypothesis
Can be used to help scientists form hypotheses for future research
Phineas Gage

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Worked for a railroad company in the us and was 25 when an iron rod propelled
upwards underneath his eye and through his head
The rod was found 25 m away, so it was travelling quite fast
He did not die but did take a year to recover physically
Mentally, he was much more impulsive, rude, indecisive, and impatient
Self reporting- a method in which responses are provided directly by the people being studied,
typically through face to face interactions, phone surveys, paper and pencil tests, and web-
based questionnaires
Single Blind Study-participants do not know the true purpose of the study, or else do not which
type of treatment they are receiving (placebo or drug)
Double Blind Study-neither the participant nor the experimenters knows the exact treatment
for each individual
The assistant takes on more responsibility tbh
Peer-review-a process in which papers submitted for publication in scholarly journals are read
and critiqued by experts in the specific field of study
Replication-the process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time
Hawthorne Effect-behavioural changes that come with knowing that you are being watched
Discovered in factories
The employers were trying to find what made employees more productive (more/less light
music/no music)
As soon as the employees knew they were being watched, their behaviour changed
More productive
Social Desirability- a tendency wherein participants may respond in ways that increase chances
that they will be viewed favourably by the experimenter and/or the other participants
Particularly relevant in interviews
Demand Characteristics-inadvertent cues given off by the experimenter or the experimental
context that provide information about how participants are expected to behave
Theory-larger, overarching thing that you believe to be true/high level thing
Hypothesis-very specific test you can do/question you can ask and if the answer is true, you
can support the question
was looking at artificial selection (breeding)
Duck hunters love labs for they love swimming and they had a soft mouth/were soft and gentle
Ordinate (vertical axis) and abscissa (horizontal axis)

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Upward graph=positive correlation
Downward graph= negative correlation
random=no correlation
Same set of variables can have different correlations depending on a situation
The temptation of causation-must remember that correlation does not equal causation
Countries that eat more fat tend have a higher annual death rate
Tempted to infer that the animal fat is causing a higher death rate
Must also remember that there are many other variables and many other
Look at other things like socio economic standings of the country
There are also zero correlations
Numbers like ~0.5 and higher are strong correlations
Tall people tend to earn ~$800 more
Males tend to be taller than females
Could be a causal relationship as tall people look more capable
Different ethnic groups have different heights
Socio economic position in that you are able to be fed well and be taller and they may
also have better connections
Experiments are the best way to figure out what causes what
Joordens grew up new brunswick
White nation
They did not like homosexuality
Thought he was cool with it until he moved to toronto and saw two dudes kiss and got
freaked out cuz he had never seen it before
Theory-people become more scared of ‘others’ (prejudicial) when they are feeling personally
weak or insecure
There are these things called
in groups
out groups
Largely ignorant of groups that we do not understand
Hypothesis-people with lower self-esteem should behave in more prejudicial ways than those
with higher self-esteem
The higher the self esteem the less prejudice
Null hypothesis-assumes that any differences between groups (or conditions) are due to chance
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